Tuesday, June 29, 2010

John Penn
Signer of the Declaration of Independence from North Carolina

John Penn was born near Port Royal in Caroline County, Virginia, on May 17, 1741. He was the only child of Moses and Catherine Penn. Moses was a moderately successful planter who died in 1759 when John was 18 years old. Though his father had the means, John never received a formal education and had received only a few years of tutoring at home or in the local country school by the time he was 18. John became the manager of a small fortune left to him by his father. He began to study law using the extensive legal library of his uncle, Edmund Pendleton, who lived in the vicinity.

John's sense of responsibility and tenacious attitude were evidenced by his willingness to study hard and learn the ins and outs of his tough new profession. He pushed himself to succeed and was accepted as a lawyer by the Virginia bar in 1762 at the age of 21. He began his practice at Bowling Green, Caroline County, Virginia, and his legal skills soon became apparent. He rose quickly in the public eye and was equal with the best lawyers of the day. He was also a member of the Episcopal Church.

On July 28, 1763, John married Susannah Lyne. They had two children. The oldest was William who never married. The second was Lucy who married John Taylor of Caroline. Taylor was another orphaned relative who had been trained in the law by Edmund Pendleton. He also became a famous colonel during the Revolutionary War.

John Penn goes to North Carolina
After practicing law for twelve years, Mr. Penn moved his family to Williamsboro in Granville County, North Carolina, in 1774. He joined the bar and established a successful law practice. In August 1775, he was elected to attend the Provincial Congress which met at Hillsboro. He was a popular leader serving on 15-20 different committees. On September 8, 1775, he was elected to fill the vacancy left by Richard Caswell in the Continental Congress. He took his seat on October 12, 1775. Mr. Penn had hoped for a reconciliation with Great Britain, but realized it was impossible. During his time in Congress, he sat on various committees and was re-elected in '77, '78 and '79, serving continuously from 1775-1780.
John Penn and the Declaration of Independence
On April 12, 1776, the North Carolina Provincial Congress met at Halifax and passed a resolution known as the Halifax Resolves. The Halifax Resolves instructed North Carolina's delegates to the Continental Congress to join with the delegates of the colonies in declaring independence from Great Britain. Penn by this time was wholeheartedly in agreement with the Resolves. He and the other North Carolina delegates, Joseph Hewes and William Hooper, returned to Philadelphia. Hooper being absent, Penn and Hewes voted for independence on July 2 and voted to accept Jefferson's Declaration of Independence on July 4. All three signed the document on August 2. John Penn was only 35 years of age at the time. None of the three North Carolina signers were natives of North Carolina. William Hooper stepped down and Joseph Hewes was not reelected in 1777. This made Penn the senior member of the delegation to Congress from North Carolina.

In 1778, John Penn was one of North Carolina's representatives who signed the Articles of Confederation, America's first governing document. John was appointed by Governor Nash to serve on North Carolina's powerful Board of War from 1780-81. As the most active member of the Board, he was given complete control of the State of North Carolina when Lord Cornwallis invaded it. As a member of the Board of War, John was heavily involved with supplying the General Nathaniel Greene's Continental troops and the guerrilla fighters under the command of Francis Marion. Francis Marion is the character played by Mel Gibson in the movie "The Patriot." As leader of the Board of War, Penn was largely responsible for Lord Cornwallis' defeat. Around this time, Mr. Penn retired from public life and declined a judgeship in North Carolina due to failing health. He resumed his law practice at this time.

Mr. Penn was a popular and successful leader who had only one moment of serious trouble with a fellow congressperson. Penn and Henry Laurens, who was then the President of Congress, had a serious disagreement that degenerated to the point of Laurens challenging Penn to a duel. Both men were staying at the same boarding house and ate breakfast together the morning of the scheduled duel. The men began to walk toward the appointed place which was an open lot across from the Masonic Hall on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. As they walked they had to cross a muddy trench and Penn offered to help Mr. Laurens cross. Mr. Laurens accepted the help and Mr. Penn suggested that they drop their plans. Mr. Laurens accepted and they resolved their differences. Thank God! This was a very different turnout from what happened when fellow Declaration signer Button Gwinnett was challenged to a duel.

John Penn after the Revolutionary War
In March 1784, Mr. Penn was appointed by Robert Morris as North Carolina's receiver of taxes for the Confederation, but he promptly resigned in April because the confederation gave him no authority to enforce collection of the taxes. He resumed his law practice until his death on September 14, 1788, at the age of 47, near Williamsboro. John Penn was buried on his estate near Island Creek in Granville County, North Carolina. In 1894, he was reinterred at the Guilford Battle Grounds near Greensboro on the grounds of Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. Mr. William Hooper, a fellow North Carolina Signer of the Declaration of Independence, was reinterred there at the same time. The third North Carolina Signer of the Declaration, Joseph Hewes, is honored along with Penn and Hooper on the plaque on the monument. The statue on the top is of William Hooper who was a powerful orator in Congress.

The USS John Penn was a naval ship named after Penn. It was involved in the taking of French Morocco and Guadalcanal in World War II. It was sunk on August 13, 1943 near Guadalcanal.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Independence Day
July 4, 1776 - July 4, 2010
It was not easy to get and keep. Who were the very brave 56 men we refer to as our Founding Fathers, and what happened to them?

Fifty-six men from each of the original 13 colonies signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Nine of the signers were immigrants, two were brothers and two were cousins. One was an orphan. The average age of a signer was 45. Benjamin Franklin was the oldest delegate at 70. The youngest was Thomas Lynch Jr. of South Carolina at 27.

Eighteen of the signers were merchants or businessmen, 14 were farmers, and four were doctors. Twenty-two were lawyers - although William Hooper of North Carolina was "disbarred" when he spoke out against the king - and nine were judges. Stephen Hopkins had been governor of Rhode Island. Forty-two signers had served in their colonial legislatures.

John Witherspoon of New Jersey was the only active clergyman to attend. (Indeed, he wore his pontificals to the sessions.) Almost all were Protestants. Charles Carroll of Maryland was the lone Roman Catholic.

Seven of the signers were educated at Harvard, four at Yale, four at William & Mary, and three at Princeton. Witherspoon was the president of Princeton, and George Wythe was a professor at William & Mary. His students included Declaration scribe Thomas Jefferson.

Seventeen signers fought in the American Revolution. Thomas Nelson was a colonel in the Second Virginia Regiment and then commanded Virginia military forces at the Battle of Yorktown. William Whipple served with the New Hampshire militia and was a commanding officer in the decisive Saratoga campaign. Oliver Wolcott led the Connecticut regiments sent for the defense of New York and commanded a brigade of militia that took part in the defeat of General Burgoyne. Caesar Rodney was a major general in the Delaware militia; John Hancock held the same rank in the Massachusetts militia.

The British captured five signers during the war. Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, and Arthur Middleton were captured at the Battle of Charleston in 1780. George Walton was wounded and captured at the Battle of Savannah. Richard Stockton of New Jersey never recovered from his incarceration at the hands of British Loyalists. He died in 1781.

Thomas McKean of Delaware wrote John Adams that he was "hunted like a fox by the enemy - compelled to remove my family five times in a few months." Abraham Clark of New Jersey had two of his sons captured by the British during the war.

Eleven signers had their homes and property destroyed. Francis Lewis's New York home was razed and his wife taken prisoner. John Hart's farm and mills were destroyed when the British invaded New Jersey, and he died while fleeing capture. Carter Braxton and Nelson, both of Virginia, lent large sums of their personal fortunes to support the war effort but were never repaid.

Fifteen of the signers participated in their states' constitutional conventions, and six - Roger Sherman, Robert Morris, Franklin, George Clymer, James Wilson, and George Reed - signed the U.S. Constitution.

After the Revolution, 13 signers went on to become governors. Eighteen served in their state legislatures. Sixteen became state and federal judges. Seven became members of the U.S. House of Representatives. Six became U.S. senators. James Wilson and Samuel Chase became Supreme Court justices. Jefferson, Adams, and Elbridge Gerry each became vice president. Adams and Jefferson later became president.

Five signers played major roles in the establishment of colleges and universities: Franklin and the University of Pennsylvania; Jefferson and the University of Virginia; Benjamin Rush and Dickinson College; Lewis Morris and New York University; and George Walton and the University of Georgia.

Adams, Jefferson, and Carroll were the longest surviving signers. Adams and Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll was the last signer to die in 1832 at the age of 95.

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

First Marine Corps post
Port Royal, S.C. later known as Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island

Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island (often shortened to MCRD Parris Island) is an 8,095 acre military installation located within Port Royal, South Carolina approximately five miles south of Beaufort, the community that is typically associated with the installation. MCRD Parris Island is used for the training of enlisted Marines. Male recruits living east of the Mississippi River and female recruits from all over the United States report here to receive their initial training. Male recruits living west of the Mississippi River receive their training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, California, but may train at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island by special request.

Early history
A French Huguenot expedition, led by Jean Ribault in 1562, was the first European group to attempt to colonize Parris Island. Earlier Spanish expeditions had sighted the area, and named it "La Punta de Santa Elena", which now remains one of the oldest continuously used European place names in the United States. The French expedition built an outpost named Charlesfort, and Ribault left a small garrison as he returned to France for colonists and supplies. After a long absence, due to Ribault's delay from wars in Europe, Charlesfort was abandoned after the garrison mutinied, built a ship on the island, and sailed back to France in April 1563. In 1566 the Spanish, led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded a settlement named Santa Elena which became the capital of La Florida for the next decade. Spain finally abandoned Santa Elena in 1587. England took control of the region by the 17th century, and Parris Island became home to British plantations after being purchased by Colonel Alexander Parris, treasurer of the South Carolina colony, in 1715. From the 1720s to the Civil War, the island was divided into a number of plantations, initially growing indigo, then later cotton. During and after the Civil War, the island became home to freed slaves, and was a site of freedmen schools taught by abolitionists such as Frances Gage and Clara Barton.

Union forces captured Port Royal Sound in 1861, and Parris Island became a coaling station for the Navy. This function was taken up again after the war, thanks in large part to the former slave turned Congressman Robert Smalls, who fought for the creation of a new federal military installation on the island.

History of the Depot
Marines were first stationed on Parris Island in 1891, in the form of a small security detachment headed by First Sergeant Richard Donovan. His unit was attached to the Naval Station, Port Royal, the forerunner of Parris Island. Donovan's unit was highly commended for preserving life and property during hurricanes and tidal waves that swept over the island in 1891 and 1893.

Military buildings and homes constructed between 1891 and World War I form the nucleus of the Parris Island Historic District. At the district center are the commanding general's home, a 19th century wooden dry dock and a turn-of-the-century gazebo—all of which are on the National Register of Historic Places.

On November 1, 1915, Parris Island was officially designated a Marine Corps Recruit Depot and training was continued from then on.

Prior to 1929, a ferry provided all transportation to and from the island from Port Royal docks to the Recruit Depot docks. In that year the causeway and a bridge over Archer's Creek were completed, thus ending the water transportation era. The causeway was dedicated as the General E. A. Pollock Memorial Causeway in April 1984. During the fateful December 1941, 5,272 recruits arrived there with 9,206 arriving the following month, making it necessary to add the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Recruit Training Battalions. As the war influx continued, five battalions were sent to New River, North Carolina, to train, and the Depot expanded to 13 battalions. From 1941 through 1945, the Marines trained 204,509 recruits here and at the time of the Japanese surrender, the Depot contained more than 20,000 recruits.

On February 15, 1949, the Marines activated a separate "command" for the sole purpose of training female recruits. Later, this command was designated the 4th Recruit Training Battalion and it now serves as the only battalion in the Corps for training female recruits.

The Korean War began in 1950 when 2,350 recruits were in training. From then until the 1st Marine Division withdrew from Korea, Parris Island drill instructors trained more than 138,000 recruits. During March 1952, the training load peaked at 24,424 recruits. The recruit tide again flooded during the years of the Vietnam War, reaching a peak training load of 10,979 during March 1966.

On the night of April 8, 1956, the Ribbon Creek incident resulted in the drowning of six recruits, and lead to widespread changes in recruit training policies. Supervision of drill instructors was expanded, such as the introduction of the Series Commander.

In the 1990s, the Town of Port Royal annexed the entire island, though most visitors still associate the installation with Beaufort, a larger community five miles to the north.

Today, the Marines train about 17,000 recruits at Parris Island each year.

Recruit training
Recruit training for those enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, includes a thirteen week process during which the recruit becomes cut off from the
civilian world and must adapt to a Marine Corps lifestyle. During training, the drill instructors train recruits in a wide variety of subjects including weapons training, Marine Corps Martial Arts Program, personal hygiene and cleanliness, close order drill, and Marine Corps history. The training emphasizes physical fitness and recruits must attain a minimum standard of fitness to graduate. This standard includes a Physical Fitness Test. Recruits must also meet minimum combat-oriented swimming qualifications, qualify in rifle marksmanship with the M16A2 service rifle, and pass a 54-hour simulated combat exercise known as "The Crucible".

Monday, June 21, 2010

Tony Hayward
The most hated man on the Gulf Coast of Mexico

Anthony Bryan "Tony" Hayward, (born 21 May 1957) is the Chief Executive of oil and energy company BP Group, taking over from John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley on 1 May 2007.

Education and early career
Hayward gained a first class geology degree from Aston University in Birmingham followed by a PhD from the University of Edinburgh. Joining BP in 1982, with his first job as a rig geologist in Aberdeen, he quickly rose through the ranks in a series of technical and commercial roles in BP Exploration in London, Aberdeen, France, China and Glasgow. Hayward first came to Lord Browne's attention during a 1990 leadership conference in Phoenix, Arizona. As a result, he was made Browne's executive assistant.

In 1992, Hayward moved to Colombia as exploration manager and became president of BP's operations in Venezuela in 1995. In August 1997, he returned to London as a director of BP Exploration. He became group vice president of BP Amoco Exploration and Production as well as a member of the BP group's Upstream executive committee in 1999.

Hayward was appointed BP group treasurer in September 2000 where his responsibilities included global treasury operations, foreign exchange dealing, corporate finance, project finance and mergers and acquisitions. Hayward became an executive vice president in April 2002, and Chief Executive of exploration and production in January 2003.

In 2009, Hayward was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from University of Edinburgh.

Replacement of Lord Browne
In light of safety and resultant production issues in Alaska and the report on the explosion at the Texas City refinery, Peter Sutherland, BP's non-executive chairman, accelerated the process for replacing Lord Browne, bringing the timetable forward from end-2008 (when Browne would be 60, and nominally forced to retire under BP's rules) to July 2007. Hayward, having been termed CEO designate by both internal and media commentators, came to the fore amid the competition, including Robert Dudley, chief executive of TNK-BP, the company's Russian joint venture, and John Manzoni, head of refining and marketing.

On 18 December 2006, in the run-up to replace Lord Browne as Chief Executive of BP Group, the Financial Times reported that Hayward had criticised BP's management at an internal management meeting, in the wake of a blast at the firm's Texas City refinery that killed 15 people and injured more than 170 others. Hayward made the comments at a town hall meeting in Houston: "We have a leadership style that is too directive and doesn't listen sufficiently well. The top of the organisation doesn't listen sufficiently to what the bottom is saying."

On 12 January 2007 it was announced that Hayward would replace Lord Browne as BP Chief Executive. In preparation for Hayward's take up as Group CEO, on 2 February Andy Inglis was appointed managing director of the BP Group, and succeeds

Hayward as chief executive of BP's Exploration & Production (E&P) business.

Hayward was appointed to the Chief Executive position with immediate effect on 1 May 2007, after Lord Browne resigned following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from publishing details about his private life.

BP pays Hayward an annual salary of £998,000 and in 2008 his bonus was £1,496,000.

Negotations with Russia's Igor Sechin
In 2008, Tony Hayward had private meetings with Igor Sechin, a top figure of Russian military and security services. The two negotiated on BP's deals with Russia.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill
On 20 April 2010, an explosion occurred on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, operated by BP. Eleven people were killed in the blast and oil began to leak from the ocean floor at a rate variously estimated to be between 5,000 and 100,000 barrels per day. Hayward, and BP in general, initially downplayed the spill, stating on 17 May 2010 that the environmental impact of the Gulf spill would likely be "very very modest" and calling the spill "relatively tiny" in comparison with the size of the ocean. By 27 May, Hayward had apparently changed his assessment, calling the spill an "environmental catastrophe" in an interview with CNN.

Hayward has stated that his job might be at risk as a result of the spill, saying "we made a few little mistakes early on." Hayward received criticism for various statements he has made during the spill, including telling a camera man to "get out of there" during a photo-op on the shores of Louisiana.

On 30 May, Hayward told a reporter "we're sorry for the massive disruption it's caused to their lives. There's no one who wants this thing over more than I do, I'd like my life back." Hayward was widely criticized for the comment and United States Representative Charlie Melancon (D-La.) called on Hayward to resign in the wake of this comment. He later apologized for the comment on BP America's Facebook Page.

On 31 May, Hayward disputed claims of huge underwater plumes of oil suspended in the Gulf, as had been reported by scientists from three universities. Hayward said there was "no evidence" that plumes of oil were suspended under the sea, and that because it is lighter than water any plumes seen are just in the process of rising to the surface. A chemist from Louisiana State University agreed with this assessment. Still other scientists have suggested that the manner of expulsion of the oil from the well and the use of dispersants may have led to an emulsion situation in which the oil is suspended in water for some time.

On 5 June the Daily Telegraph reported that Hayward sold approximately one third of his shares in BP a month before the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded. The shares subsequently fell in value by 30%, although the Telegraph stated: "There is no suggestion that he acted improperly or had prior knowledge that the company was to face the biggest setback in its history." In an interview on NBC on 8 June, President Barack Obama said that Hayward "wouldn't be working for me after any of those statements", referring to the remarks Hayward made following the spill.

Before a congressional hearing on the oil spill held on 17 June, subcommittee chairman Bart Stupak said that he expected Hayward to be "spliced and diced" [sic] by both himself and other committee members. Hayward's eleven-page document that he read to the committee included a passage in which he said he would "pledge as leader of BP that we will not stop until we stop this well ... and address economic claims in a responsible manner". He continued, "This is a complex accident, caused by an unprecedented combination of failures. A number of companies are involved, including BP, and it is simply too early to understand the cause."

On 18 June, the day after Hayward appeared before the congressional hearing, the chairman of BP said that Hayward would step away from daily involvement in the company's efforts in the Gulf. Hayward attended the JP Morgan Asset Management Round the Island yacht race on 19 June off the Isle of Wight. Rahm Emanuel, President Obama's chief of staff, said that Hayward had committed yet another in a "long line of PR gaffes" by attending the race while the Gulf oil spill continued. The day before Father's Day Hayward was in Cowes - having taken a "day off" - in order to see Bob, his co-owned boat, participate in the race.

Other positions
Hayward was a member of the Citibank advisory board, from 2000 to 2003. Hayward is presently senior independent non-executive director of Corus Group, appointed in April 2002, and a non-executive director of Tata Steel. Hayward is a committee member of Audit, Nominations and Health, Safety and Environment. Hayward was appointed a Companion of the Chartered Management Institute in September 2005.

Personal life
Hayward is married with two children, and lives near Sevenoaks, Kent.

Thursday, June 17, 2010

My Place of Birth
I am here to brag about my place of birth <> Lawrence County, Tennessee. David Crockett became a citizen, and more, in this backwood country in 1817 and enjoyed life until the flood came in 1821.

The site, where he lived and worked, is now a state park <> David Crockett State Park. I have been to a lot of parks, but this one may be the very best. It has something for everybody to enjoy.

Recently, park officials opened new Green Cabins. They became available to rent on Flag Day, June 14. (See photo of cabin above)

Two and three bedrooms are available and each cabin is equipped with everything you need for sleeping and cooking. To make reservations, call David Crockett State Park office at (931) 762-9408. Link to ALL Tennessee State Parks: http://www.tnstateparks.com/

David Crockett was a pioneer, soldier, politician, industrialist and was born near the little town of Limestone in northeast Tennessee in 1786. In 1817, he moved to Lawrence County and served as a justice of the peace, a colonel of the militia, and as state representative. Along the bank of Shoal Creek, in what is now his namesake park, he established a diversified industry consisting of a powder-mill, a gristmill and a distillery. All three operations were washed away in a flood in September, 1821. Financial difficulties from this loss caused Crockett to move to West Tennessee where he was elected to Congress. While in Washington, he fought for his people's right to keep land they had settled on the new frontier of West Tennessee. Crockett died at the Alamo Mission in March of 1836 while aiding the Texans in their fight for independence from Mexico.

Attractions - Dedicated in May of 1959, in honor of one of Tennessee's most famous native sons, David Crockett State Park is located on U.S. Highway 64 in Lawrence County, one-half mile west of the City of Lawrenceburg.

David Crockett State Park restaurant overlooks 40-acre scenic Lake Lindsey. The restaurant features home-style cooking served up buffet style. Reservations may be taken for wedding receptions, family reunions, class reunions, business meeting/luncheons, etc.

Other points of interest are the Amish Community, the David Crockett Cabin and Downtown Lawrenceburg (antiques and shopping.)

Recreation - A full range of recreational facilities and activities can be found at the park. Activities include hiking, tennis, softball, volleyball and much more. Some recreational equipment is available forcheck-out at the park office.

Climate - Tennessee has a temperate climate with short, mild winters. The average annual snowfall for the state is 12 inches. Spring comes in early March bringing flowering trees and shrubs, and warmer weather. Spring temperatures average between 45 and 70 degrees. Summer's full force arrives in the region by mid May, bringing warm weather and higher humidity. The mountains of eastern Tennessee are a great place to escape the hot summer temperatures as the higher elevation cools the air slightly. Cool fall temperatures bring crisp air and brilliant fall colors. Mid to late October is a good time to visit the region to experience the fall foliage.

Location - David Crockett State Park is located off of Hwy. 64, West of Lawrenceburg, Tennessee.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

U.S. Marine Corps Facts
Birth Place: Tun Tavern
Established: November 10, 1775
Colors: Scarlet & Gold
Mascot: English Bulldog

The inspiration that led to the adoption of the English bulldog as the official Marine Corps mascot came from World War I-era German soldiers. Legend has it that the Marines were referred to as “teufel-hunden,” (“devil-dogs”), the vicious, wild mountain dogs of Bavarian folklore, because of the Marines’ relentless method of attack that turned the tide as the German Army approached Paris. In June 1918, the Marines repeatedly repulsed the Germans in Belleau Wood, ending the offensive to take the city. Soon afterward, a Marine recruiting poster painted by artist Charles B. Falls appeared depicting a dachshund, attired in a spiked helmet and Iron Cross, fleeing from an English bulldog wearing a helmet bearing the Marines’ globe and anchor insignia. The painting’s inscription read, “Teufel-Huenden—German nickname for U. S. Marines—Devil Dog Recruiting Station.”

The first officially enlisted Marine Corps mascot was an English bulldog christened Jiggs. Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler inducted him into the Corps as Private Jiggs with a formal ceremony on 14 October, 1922, at Quantico, VA. Eventually promoted to ultimate Marine rank, Sgt. Major Jiggs presented the Marine colors throughout the world, and was featured in the 1926 Lon Chaney film “Tell It To The Marines.” Upon his death in 1927, SgtMaj. Jiggs was interred with full military honors. His satin-lined coffin lay in state in a hangar at Quantico, surrounded by flowers from hundreds of Corps admirers.

• For decades, official mascots were called “Smedley” to honor their first inducting sponsor, Gen. Smedley D. Butler.
• “Chesty” became the most used named beginning in the 1950's, to honor legendary Lt. General Lewis B. “Chesty” Puller Jr.
• Chesty III was awarded the Good Conduct Medal for his behavior with children.
• Present mascot Corporal Chesty XI enlisted Aug. 24, 1995.

Semper Fidelis; Latin for Always Faithful
Until 1871 it was "First to Fight", a motto that still applies.
Through the years, Marines have shortened it to Semper Fi, and "Semper Fi, Mac" is the universal Marine Greeting.

The Marine Corps Seal, designed by the Marine Corps Uniform Board in accordance with instructions of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, then General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., was adopted by Presidential Executive Order 10538 of 22 June 1954.

The traditional Marine Corps emblem-eagle, globe and fouled anchor-forms the basic device of the Seal. Of these three, the eagle and the fouled anchor are the most venerable, dating from 1800 when they first appeared on the Marine uniform button-a button which has remained to this day virtually unchanged from its original form. Influenced strongly by the design of the emblem of the British Royal Marines depicting as their domain the Eastern hemisphere, the U.S. Marines adopted in 1868 as their emblem a globe showing the Western hemisphere. To this was added the spread eagle and fouled anchor from the button. Twelve years later the motto, "Semper Fidelis," completed the design.

The scarlet and gold surrounding the emblem are the official Marine Corps colors. These in turn are enclosed by Navy blue and gold signifying the Marine Corps as an integral part of the naval team.

The history of the Marine Corps emblem is a story related to the history of the Corps itself. The emblem of today traces its roots to the designs and ornaments of early Continental Marines as well as British Royal Marines. The emblem took its present form in 1868. Before that time many devices, ornaments, and distinguishing marks followed one another as official marks of the Corps.

In 1776, the device consisted of a "fouled anchor" of silver or pewter. The fouled anchor still forms a part of the emblem today. (A fouled anchor is an anchor which has one or more turns of the chain around it). Changes were made in 1798, 1821, and 1824. In 1834 it was prescribed that a brass eagle be worn on the hat, the eagle to measure 3 1/2 inches from wingtip to wingtip.

During the early years numerous distinguishing marks were prescribed, including "black cockades, "scarlet plumes," and "yellow bands and tassels." In 1859 the origin of the present color scheme for the officer's dress uniform ornaments appeared on an elaborate device of solid white metal and yellow metal. The design included a United States shield, half wreath, a bugle, and the letter "M."

In 1868, Brigadier General Commandant Jacob Zeilin appointed a board "to decide and report upon the various devices of cap ornaments for the Marine Corps." On 13 November 1868, the board turned in its report. It was approved by the Commandant four days later, and on 19 November 1868 was signed by the Secretary of the Navy.

The emblem recommended by this board has survived with minor changes to this day. It consists of a globe (showing the Western Hemisphere) intersected by a fouled anchor, and surmounted by a spread eagle. On the emblem itself, the device is topped by a ribbon inscribed with the Latin motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful). The uniform ornaments omit the motto ribbon.

The general design of the emblem was probably derived from the British Royal Marines' "Globe and Laurel." The globe on the U.S. Marine emblem signifies service in any part of the world. The eagle also indirectly signifies service worldwide, although this may not have been the intention of the designers in 1868. The eagle they selected for the Marine emblem is a crested eagle, a type found all over the world. On the other hand, the eagle pictured on the great seal and the currency of the United States is the bald eagle, strictly an American variety. The anchor, whose origin dates back to the founding of the Marine Corps in 1775, indicates the amphibious nature of Marines' duties.

On 22 June 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an Executive Order, which approved the design of an official seal for the United States Marine Corps. The new seal had been designed at the request of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr.

The new seal consisted of the traditional Marine Corps emblem in bronze; however, an American bald eagle replaced the crested eagle depicted on the 1868 emblem, and is depicted with wings displayed, standing upon the western hemisphere of the terrestrial globe, and holding in his beak a scroll inscribed with the Marine Corps motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful) with the hemisphere superimposed on a fouled anchor. The seal is displayed on a scarlet background encircled with a Navy blue band edged in a gold rope rim and inscribed "Department of the Navy, United States Marine Corps" in gold letters. Coincident with the approval of this seal by the President, the emblem centered on the seal was adopted in 1955 as the official Marine Corps Emblem.

Reference Section History and Museums Division
History of the Marine Corps Flag
Very little information is available regarding the flags carried by early American Marines, although indications are that the Grand Union flag was carried ashore by the battalion led by Captain Samuel Nicholas on New Providence Island, 3 March 1776. It is quite possible that the Rattlesnake flag was also carried on this expedition.

The standard carried by the Marines during the 1830s and 1840s consisted of a white field with gold fringe, and bore an elaborate design of an anchor and eagle in the center. Prior to the Mexican War, this flag bore the legend "To the Shores of Tripoli" across the top. Shortly after the war, the legend was revised to read: "From Tripoli to the Halls of the Montezumas."

During the Mexican and Civil Wars, Marines in the field apparently carried a flag similar to the national flag, comprised of red and white stripes and a union. The union, however, contained an eagle perched on a shield of the United States and a half-wreath beneath the shield, with 29 stars encircling the entire design. Beginning in 1876, Marines carried the national colors (the Stars and Stripes) with "U.S. Marine Corps" embroidered in yellow on the middle red stripe.

At the time of the Vera Cruz landing in 1914, a more distinctive standard was carried by Marines. The design consisted of a blue field with a laurel wreath encircling the Marine Corps emblem in the center. A scarlet ribbon above the emblem carried the words "U.S. Marine Corps," while another scarlet ribbon below the emblem carried the motto "Semper Fidelis."

Orders were issued on 2 April 1921 which directed all national colors be manufactured without the yellow fringe and without the words "U.S. Marine Corps" embroidered on the red stripe. This was followed by an order dated 14 March 1922, retiring from use all national colors still in use with yellow fringe or wording on the flag. Following World War I, the Army practice of attaching silver bands carrying inscriptions enumerating specific decorations and battles was adopted. This practice was discontinued on 23 January 1961.

Marine Corps Order No. 4 of 18 April 1925 designated gold and scarlet as the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps. These colors, however, were not reflected in the official Marine Corps standard until 18 January 1939, when a new design incorporating the new colors was approved. The design was essentially that of today's Marine Corps standard.

For a brief time following World War I, the inscribing of battle honors directly on the colors of a unit was in practice, but realization that a multiplicity of honors and the limited space on the colors made the system impractical, and the procedure was discontinued. On 29 July 1936, a Marine Corps Board recommended that the Army system of attaching streamers to the staff of the organizational colors be adopted. Such a system was finally authorized by Marine Corps Order No. 157, dated 3 November 1939, and is currently in practice.

Reference Section
History and Museums Division

The Marines' Hymn:
It is the oldest official song in the U.S. Armed Forces. The words are dated from the 19th century. The music is from the opera, "Genevieve de Brabant" by Jacques Offenbach, which opened in Paris in 1859. The Marine Corps secured a copyright on the song on 19 August 1919.

This name originates from the stiff leather stock that early Marines wore around their necks, probably to protect their jugular vein against saber blows.

Devil Dog
The Germans after the battle at Belleau Wood in World War I called the Marines "Teufelhunden", which translates as Devil Dog, because of the fierce fighting that the Marines demonstrated.

This was a slang term used by sailors in World War II because Marines in their Dress Blues with the stiff collar resembled Mason Jars.

The President's Own
Formed from the combination of G.I. and Marine
America's (The World's) 911 Force

The Marine Corps has earned this nickname by being the first forces called in a crisis.

During the Cold War, Marines were called upon to protect our nation's interests on an average of once every 15 weeks. Since 1990, Marines have responded once every 5 weeks, an increase in tasking's by a factor of three.
Motivational Call - OOH RAH, OO RAH Marines hear it each and every day. Ingrained into Marine minds since boot camp, this distinctly Marine call is barked back and forth in an almost endless stream of motivation. However, take a step back and ask that Marine, "where did 'Oorah' come from exactly?"
The answer is rarely the same. Countless stories abound regarding the mysterious origins of our beloved phrase.

However, unlike many Marine traditions, "Oorah" is rather new. As any veteran of the past 50 years would say, no Marine before 1950 could be found saying it. The true popularization of the word came in the '80s and '90s, when it fully emerged from the murky secrecy of Marine reconnaissance through drill instructors and by other means into use by Marines around the world.

"As far as I had been told, 'Oorah simply means 'let's kill,'" said Staff Sgt. Hugo Monroy, drill instructor for Platoon 1094, Delta Co., 1st RTBn. "As far as its origin, I really don't know. I always assumed it was simply a Marine tradition that was passed down from Marine to Marine."

The stories of "Oorah's" origins range from the logical to the absurd, including stories such as it being Turkish for kill, which is in fact цldьrmek, or even simply a direct counter against the Army's "Hooah."

But where did the word really come from?

Marines and historians have determined the true origins of "Oorah" lie with recon Marines stationed in Korea in 1953. During this time, reconnaissance Marines in the 1st Amphibious Reconnaissance Co., found themselves traveling via submarine to where they were needed. The memorable call of "dive, dive!" would be called on the intercom and a klaxon alarm, which made a very distinct "Aarugha" sound, would announce the descent of the sub below water.

The recon Marines, who heard this sound often, started using it as a motivational tool during runs and physical training. Over time, the word "Aarugha" came to be too much of a mouthful, and eventually molded itself into the familiar "Oorah," according to Maj. Gary Marte, a retired Marine.

Confirmation for this version of the story rests with the official Marine Corps Training Reference Manual on the history of Marine recon, titled "Aarugha," the manual gives credence on the origination of the phrase with reconnaissance Marines."Oorah" is just one of the things that separates Marines from any other branch of service, and has become a part of our lasting history.

"It is the traditions, the history, that makes Marines stand out," said Aulton Kohn, Parris Island Museum information receptionist. "The stories passed from drill instructor to recruit, and from Marine to Marine, they add the color to the Corps."

Corps Values:
HONOR: I will bear true faith and allegiance ...; Accordingly, we will: Conduct ourselves in the highest ethical manner in all relationships with peers, superiors and subordinates; Be honest and truthful in our dealings with each other, and with those outside the Navy; Be willing to make honest recommendations and accept those of junior personnel; Encourage new ideas and deliver the bad news, even when it is unpopular; Abide by an uncompromising code of integrity, taking responsibility for our actions and keeping our word; Fulfill or exceed our legal and ethical responsibilities in our public and personal lives twenty-four hours a day. Illegal or improper behavior or even the appearance of such behavior will not be tolerated. We are accountable for our professional and personal behavior. We will be mindful of the privilege to serve our fellow Americans.

COURAGE: I will support and defend..; Accordingly, we will have: courage to meet the demands of our profession and the mission when it is hazardous, demanding, or otherwise difficult; Make decisions in the best interest of the navy and the nation, without regard to personal consequences; Meet these challenges while adhering to a higher standard of personal conduct and decency; Be loyal to our nation, ensuring the resources entrusted to us are used in an honest, careful, and efficient way. Courage is the value that gives us the moral and mental strength to do what is right, even in the face of personal or professional adversity.

COMMITMENT: I will obey the orders ...; Accordingly, we will: Demand respect up and down the chain of command; Care for the safety, professional, personal and spiritual well-being of our people; Show respect toward all people without regard to race, religion, or gender; Treat each individual with human dignity; Be committed to positive change and constant improvement; Exhibit the highest degree of moral character, technical excellence, quality and competence in what we have been trained to do. The day-to-day duty of every Navy man and woman is to work together as a team to improve the quality of our work, our people and ourselves.

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Flag Day
Flag Day will always be remembered by me. My mother, at age 90, died on Flag Day 1987. She is buried at Barnesville Cemetery, Northwest Lawrence County, Tennessee.

On June 14, Americans will observe Flag Day by waving Old Glory outside their homes and businesses.

George Washington and other members of the Continental Congress asked Betsy Ross, a young widow, to sew the first American flag in 1776. Betsy was in her early 20's when she completed the first flag with thirteen stars arranged in a circle.

A year later, the Continental Congress officially adopted the design for the national flag, and henceforward the Stars and Stripes symbolized the U.S. around the world.

The first "official" Flag Day was celebrated in 1877 - the flag's centennial. In 1916, a grass roots movement resulted in President Woodrow Wilson issuing a proclamation that called for a nationwide observance of Flag Day on June 14.
Although still not an official holiday, Flag Day was made a permanent observance in America in 1949 by Congress who resolved "That the 14th day of June of each year is hereby designated as Flag Day."
Questions about the flag
Why red, white and blue? To the original members of the Continental Congress, red stood for hardiness and courage, white for purity and innocence, and blue for vigilance and justice.

Why thirteen stars and stripes? They represented the thirteen American colonies which rallied around the new flag in their fight against the British for self-governance.
The thirteen colonies included Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

To this day, thirteen stripes still commemorate the orginal colonies. Instead of thirteen stars, today the number of stars on the US flag has grown to 50, representing every state in the Union.

How to celebrate Flag Day
Wave Old Glory from the front porch, apartment balcony or window, or attend Flag Day parades or festivities sponsored by local organizations.

Hold an open house or a backyard barbecue. Decorate the backyard in red, white, and blue. A Flag Day menu might include lots of American favorites like hamburgers, hot dogs and, for desert, how about an American flag cake?

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

Charles Lindbergh

Lindberge flew a combat mission with U.S. Marines during World War II.

In the late 1930s, Lindbergh lost much of his popularity with the American people. Traveling in Europe, he visited Germany and was very impressed by the newly dynamic, and militaristic state. While touring German aviation facilities for the American military attache, Goering presented him with the Verdienstkreuz Deutscher Adler, the Service Cross of the German Eagle, a medal adorned with swastikas.

It would later prove to be more of an albatross than an eagle, but Lindbergh refused to return it.

Lindbergh worried over America's involvement in an upcoming European war. He decided that he could better help warn America of the threat posed by Soviet Russia if he returned to the States. He sailed in the Aquitania in April, 1939. The war in Europe started that September, and Lindbergh began to advocate neutrality in articles and speeches. By 1940 the Germans had conquered France and threatened to overrun Great Britain.

While President Roosevelt and many Americans recognized the Nazi threat to the world, other "anti-interventionists" opposed any aid to Britain, and wanted to maintain a steadfast neutrality. In retrospect, with our knowledge of the true horrors of Naziism, the Holocaust, etc. it's easy to dismiss the isolationists as misguided puppets. At the time, things were not so clear, and many patriotic Americans felt that neutrality was in our best interest. Among the prominent Americans opposed to involvement in the war were Senator Bennett Champ Clark, Colonel Robert McCormick (publisher of the Chicago Tribune), Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, Senator Burton K. Wheeler, the Socialist Norman Thomas, novelist Kathleen Norris, and of course, Charles Lindbergh.

America First
The Committee to Defend America First (later shortened title) was formed at Yale University in late 1939 by R. Douglas Stuart Jr. Then on Sept 4, 1940, Stuart used his business connections (he was the son of the first V.P. of the Quaker Oats Co) to form a national organization in Chicago. Gen. Robert E. Wood, chairman of the board of Sears, Roebuck, became the National Chairman of America First and Stuart the National Director. In March 1941, Gen Wood expressed his desire to step down from the chairmanship and thought Lindbergh was the best man for the position. Lindbergh said that "It would be a great mistake for me to take a leading position in the America First Committee..."

On April 10, 1941, Lindbergh declined the chairmanship formally, but agreed to become a member of the national committee, a public relations group, also filled by a rotating roster of people like Lillian Gish, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Henry Ford, Chester Bowles, Robert Hutchins, Eddie Rickenbacker, etc.. While he was NOT a founder of America First, nor a member of the AF Executive Committee, which was the actual group that determined policy, he was their most popular speaker.

During the Lend-Lease hearings, He was called to testify before Congress in early 1941, Senator Claude Pepper wanted Lindbergh to provide some background on the development of his views on German aviation and the overall European situation. He started by asking, "Colonel Lindbergh, when did you first go to Europe?" Lindbergh deadpanned, "Nineteen twenty-seven, sir."

His public disagreements with President Roosevelt increased. Following what he felt to be a personal insult, which Roosevelt declined to apologize for, Lindbergh resigned his Army Air Corps commission in April, 1941. The split in the country deepened.

But Lindbergh went farther than others as 1941 progressed. In a famous article in Collier's magazine, and shortly afterward, in a speech at Des Moines, Iowa, Lindbergh alienated many Americans. In the Des Moines speech, he claimed that three groups were pushing America into the war in Europe: Great Britain, the Roosevelt administration, and Jews.

"Instead of agitating for war, Jews in this country should be opposing it in every way, for they will be the first to feel its consequences. Tolerance is a virtue that depends upon peace and strength. History shows that it cannot survive war and devastation. ... Large Jewish ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio and our government constitute a great danger to our country." There was national revulsion at this perceived anti-Semitism; even some America Firsters repudiated him. Streets that had been named in his honor were re-named. During this period, many citizens wrote to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover indicating their mistrust of Lindbergh and questioning his loyalty to the United States. This file consists of the letters sent to the Director, and various newspaper articles that were written about Mr. Lindbergh. See the FBI Lindbergh Files - released through Freedom of Information Act.

Pearl Harbor changed everything. Lindbergh and all the America Firsters realized that neutrality was no longer possible. The Axis powers had attacked us. Lindbergh immediately applied for reinstatement in the Army Air Corps. President Roosevelt (a great man, one of our greatest presidents, but also a politician) made it clear that there was no place in the Air Corps for Lindbergh. Personal appeals to Hap Arnold and Secretary of War Henry Stimson were fuitless.

Anxious to contribute in any way possible, Lindbergh sought a position in private industry. But he found that many companies did not want to alienate the administration and jeopardize contracts; many doors were closed. Henry Ford had no such worries, and brought on Lindbergh to help with the huge B-24 plant at Willow Run. While he worked hard, advising Henry Ford on manufacturing wasn't "adding a lot of value." By 1943, Lindbergh was testing high-altitude pressure chambers at the Mayo Clinic and test flying Corsairs for Chance Vought in Connecticut.

Corsair Pilot
In January, 1944 he persuaded Marine Corps General Louis Wood to let him help survey the USMC Corsair operations in the Pacific. A few months later, he was flying Corsairs on combat missions with the Marine squadron VMF-223 based on Green Island.

On his first combat mission, the USMC Corsairs escorted B-25's on a bombing run over Rabaul. His F4U, powered by a 2,000 HP Pratt & Whitney radial engine, carried sixteen hundred rounds of .50-caliber ammunition, that could be spewed out at a rate of 5,000 rounds per minute with all six guns firing. They approached the target at 10,000 feet, he saw the ship-strewn harbor. A little ack-ack came up his way, but no Zeros. He saw a few Jap planes in the revetments, but no ground activity. As the first bombs hit the edges of Rabaul, the radio chatter picked up and one pilot had already taken to his life raft. As Lindbergh's flight of F4-U's swung south, explosions erupted from a fuel dump hidden in a coconut grove. A mix of American airplanes roared over: USAAF B-25 bombers, Marine Corps Corsairs, USAAF P-39s, TBF torpedo bombers, and P-38s. The anti-aircraft batteries opened up at the strike planes.

After delivering their payloads, the bombers headed back; Lindbergh saw one TBF trailing smoke. On the ground at Rabaul, fires burned as the Corsairs lined up for their strafing runs. They flew out beyond range of the AAA, whipped into position, and set their trim tabs to dive. From 7,000 feet, he slanted down towards the enemy at Rabaul ... 4,000 feet ... 1,500 feet ... and, with a clear line of fire, he opened up. The tracers streaked onto and across a roof, and then raked an airstrip.

Lindbergh banked out to sea, his mission complete. But they still had plenty of ammunition. A target of opportunity, the Duke of York, a small island in St. Georges Channel, held a Japanese airstrip and garrison. While strafing, Lindbergh narrowly avoided shooting up a church, only to find, back at base, that the Japanese used it as a barracks.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Jimmy Buffett
Jimmy is a partner in the $50 million, 162-room, Gulf front Margaritaville Beach Hotel that is opening the weekend of June 13, 2010 on Pensacola Beach, Fla. The BP oil came to this site four days ago. This beautiful 4-star hotel will open as scheduled in spite of the oil on the sugar white beach.

I have never given a person anything that already has everything, but I will give Jimmy Buffett a recipe for a cocktail for his cocktail lounge. I will name it appropriately.

BP Tar-Ball Margarita
3 parts Tequila
2 parts Curacao Orange Liqueur
1 part ROSE Lime Juice
1 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon chocolate powder cocoa

Pour all ingredients into a blender over cracked ice. Blend until smooth. Serve in a salt-rimmed cocktail glass and enjoy.
Source: Noah H. Belew
James William "Jimmy" Buffett (born December 25, 1946) is a Mississippian singer, songwriter, author, businessman, and movie producer best known for his "island escapism" lifestyle and music including hits such as "Margaritaville" (No. 234 on RIAA's list of "Songs of the Century"), and "Come Monday". He has a devoted base of fans known as "Parrotheads". His band is called the Coral Reefer Band.
Aside from his career in music, Buffett is also a best-selling writer and is involved in two restaurant chains named after two of his best known songs, "Cheeseburger in Paradise" and "Margaritaville". He owns the Margaritaville Cafe restaurant chain and co-developed the Cheeseburger in Paradise restaurant concept with OSI Restaurant Partners (parent of Outback Steakhouse), which operates the chain under a licensing agreement with Buffett.
Personal life
Buffett spent part of his childhood in Mobile, Alabama. As a boy in grade school, he attended St. Ignatius School. He later lived in Fairhope, Alabama, considered by Buffett his "Home Town" during a 2001 concert. He graduated from high school from McGill Institute for Boys (now McGill-Toolen Catholic High School) in 1964. He began playing guitar during his college years at Pearl River Community College, Auburn University and The University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, where he received a bachelor's degree in
history in 1969. He was initiated into the fraternity Kappa Sigma's at the University of Southern Mississippi. After graduating from college, Buffett worked as a correspondent for Billboard magazine in Nashville, breaking the news of the separation of Flatt and Scruggs.

Buffett married Margie Washichek in 1969 and divorced in 1972. Buffett and his second wife Jane (Jane Slagsvol) have two daughters, Savannah Jane and Sarah Delaney, and an adopted son, Cameron Marley, and reside in Palm Beach, Florida. They were separated in the early 1980s, however, they reconciled in 1991. Buffett also owns a home in St Barts, a Caribbean island where he lived on and off in the early 1980s while he was part-owner of the Autour de Rocher hotel and restaurant.

He is a licensed pilot, single and multi-engine land and sea ratings.

Despite having the surname in common, and the casual friendship which has developed between their families, Jimmy Buffett has no relation to well-known capital investor Warren Buffett.

Buffett began his musical career in Nashville, Tennessee during the late 1960's as a country artist and recorded his first album, the folk rock Down to Earth, in 1970. During this time Buffett could be frequently found busking for tourists in New Orleans. Country music singer Jerry Jeff Walker took him to Key West on a busking expedition. Buffett then moved to Key West and began establishing the easy-going beach bum persona for which he is known. Following this move, Buffett combined country, folk, and pop music with coastal as well as tropical lyrical themes for a sound sometimes called "gulf and western." Today, he is a regular visitor to the Caribbean island of Saint Barts and other islands where he gets inspiration for many of his songs and some of the characters in his books.

Buffett's third album was the 1973 A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean. A1A followed in 1974, Havana Daydreamin' appeared in 1976, followed by 1977's Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes, which featured the breakthrough hit song "Margaritaville".

With the untimely death of friend and mentor Jim Croce in September 1973, ABC Dunhill tapped Buffett to fill his space. Earlier, Buffett had visited Croce's farm in Pennsylvania and met with Croce in Florida (see Jimmy Buffett "The Man from Margaritaville Revealed" - Steve Eng page 144 and "Jimmy Buffett Scrap Book" by Mark Humphrey page 120)

During the 1980s, Buffett made far more money off his tours than albums and became known as a popular concert draw. He released a series of albums during the following twenty years, primarily to his devoted audience, and also branched into writing and merchandising. In 1985, Buffett opened the first of the "Margaritaville" restaurants in Key West, bringing new visibility and life to the Margaritaville name. During the 1980s Buffett played at the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. He briefly changed the name of the band from "Coral Reefers" to the "Coral Reef Band" to suit the HLS&R's request as they thought "Reefers" was a drug related reference. HLS&R is a charity event that provides student grants to children and young adults that compete in agriculture contests (FFA).

Two of the more out-of-character albums were Christmas Island a collection of Christmas songs, and Parakeets, a collection of Buffett songs sung by children and containing "cleaned-up" lyrics (like "a cold root beer" instead of "a cold draft beer").

In 1997, Buffett collaborated with novelist Herman Wouk to create a short-lived musical based on Wouk's novel, Don't Stop the Carnival Broadway showed little interest in the play, ( post the failure of Paul Simon's The Capeman) and it only ran for six weeks in Miami. He released the soundtrack for the musical in 1998.

In August 2000 Buffett and the Coral Reefer Band played on the White House lawn for then President Bill Clinton.

In 2003, he partnered in a partial duet with Alan Jackson for the song "It's Five O'Clock Somewhere," a number one hit on the country charts. This song won the 2003 Country Music Association Award for Vocal Event of the Year. This was Buffett?s first award of any kind for his music in his 30 year career.

Buffett's album, License to Chill, released on July 13, 2004, sold 238,600 copies in its first week of release according to Nielsen SoundScan. With this, Buffett topped the U.S. pop albums chart for the first time in his three-decade career.

Buffett continues to tour throughout the year although he has shifted recently to a more relaxed schedule of around 20?30 dates, and rarely on back-to-back nights, preferring to play only on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, thus the title of his 1999 live album Buffett Live -Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays. Purchasing tickets is difficult with most of his concerts selling out in minutes.

In the summer of 2005 Buffett teamed up with Sirius radio and introduced channel 31: Radio Margaritaville, and as of November 2008 is also on XM radio channel 55. Until this point Radio Margaritaville was solely an online channel. The channel broadcasts from the Margaritaville restaurant at Universal CityWalk in Orlando, Florida. The channel is still available online at RadioMargaritaville.com.

In August 2006, he released the album Take The Weather With You. The song "Breathe In, Breathe Out, Move On" on this album refers to 2005's Hurricane Katrina. Also on the album he pays tribute to Merle Haggard with his rendition of "Silver Wings" and covers, with Mark Knopfler playing on the track, "Whoop De Doo."
Of the over 30 albums Jimmy Buffett has released, as of October 2007, he has 8 Gold Albums and 9 Platinum or Multi Platinum Albums. In 2003 Buffett won his first ever Country Music Award (CMA) for his song "It's 5 O'clock Somewhere" with Alan Jackson, and was nominated again in 2007 for the CMA Event of the Year Award for his song "Hey Good Lookin" which featured Alan Jackson and George Strait.

On December 8, 2009, Jimmy Buffett released his 28th studio album entitled Buffet Hotel.

On April 20, 2010, a double CD's of performances recorded during the 2008 and 2009 tours called encores was released exclusively at Walmart, Walmart.com and Margaritaville.com.

Buffett has written three No. 1 best sellers. Tales from Margaritaville and Where Is Joe Merchant? both spent over seven months on the The New York Times Best Seller fiction list. His book A Pirate Looks At Fifty went straight to No. 1 on the New York Times Best Seller non-fiction list, making him one of seven authors in that list's history to have reached No. 1 on both the fiction and non-fiction lists. The other six authors who have accomplished this are Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, William Styron, Irving Wallace, Dr. Seuss and Mitch Albom.

Buffett also co-wrote two children's books, The Jolly Mon and Trouble Dolls, with his eldest daughter, Savannah Jane Buffett. The original hard cover release of the The Jolly Mon included a cassette tape recording of him and Savannah Jane reading the story accompanied by an original score written by Michael Utley.

Buffett's novel A Salty Piece of Land, was released on November 30, 2004, and the first edition of the book included a CD single of the song "A Salty Piece Of Land", which was recorded for License to Chill. The book was a New York Times best seller soon after its release.

Buffett's latest title, Swine Not?, was released May 13, 2008.

Buffett is currently writing a follow-up to his autobiography A Pirate Looks at Fifty, which he says may take up to ten years to write and complete.

Film and television
Buffett wrote the soundtrack for, co-produced and acted in the 2006 film Hoot, directed by Wil Shriner and based on the book by Carl Hiassen, which focuses on issues important to Buffett, such as conservation. The film was not a critical or commercial success. He also wrote and performed the theme song to the short-lived 1993
CBS television series Johnny Bago. He also co-wrote and performed the song "Turning Around" for the 1985 film Summer Rental starring John Candy. He also wrote "I Don't Know (Spicoli's Theme)" for the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High.

In addition, Buffett has made several cameo appearances, including in Repo Man, Hook, Cobb, Hoot Congo, and From the Earth to the Moon. He also made cameo appearances as himself in Rancho Deluxe (for which he also wrote the music) and in FM. Buffett reportedly was offered a cameo role in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, but declined the offer.[4] In 1997, Buffett collaborated with novelist Herman Wouk on a musical production based on Wouk's 1965 novel Don't Stop the Carnival. In the South Park episode "Tonsil Trouble", he was seen singing "AIDSburger in Paradise" and "CureBurger in Paradise".

Business ventures
Buffett has taken advantage of his name and the fan following for his music to launch several business ventures, usually with a tropical theme. He owns or licenses the Margaritaville Cafe and Cheeseburger in Paradise restaurant chains. As a baseball fan, he was part-owner of two minor league teams: the Fort Myers Miracle and the Madison Black Wolf. Between his restaurants, album sales, and tours, he earns an estimated
$100 million a year.

In 1993, he launched Margaritaville Records, with distribution through MCA Records. His MCA record deal ended with the release of 1996's Christmas Island and he took Margaritaville Records over to Chris Blackwell's Island Records for a two record deal, 1998's Don't Stop The Carnival and 1999's Beach House On The Moon. In the fall of 1999, he started up Mailboat Records to release live albums. He partnered up with RCA Records for distribution in 2005 and 2006 for the two studio albums License To Chill and Take The Weather With You.

In 2006, Buffett launched a cooperative project with the Anheuser-Busch brewing company to produce his own beer under the Margaritaville Brewing label called Land Shark Lager. In May 2009, Miami Dolphins majority owner Stephen Ross and Jimmy Buffett announced that the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins would be renamed LandShark Stadium for the 2009 season.

In June 2007, Buffett, in partnership with Harrah's Entertainment, announced plans to build the Margaritaville Casino & Resort in Biloxi, Mississippi not far from his birthplace of Pascagoula. When completed in the spring of 2010, the resort will feature 798 rooms, a full-service spa, a pool/deck area with cabanas, and tropical landscaping.

Another Margaritaville Casino was slated to be opening in Atlantic City, New Jersey but has been put on hold indefinitely.

Buffett has also licensed Margaritaville Tequila, Margaritaville Shrimp and Margaritaville Footwear.

Collectively Buffett's business interests make up Margaritaville Holdings based out of Palm Beach, Florida. John Cohlan is his Chief Executive Officer.

In 2006, his annual amphitheater tour grossed over $41 million and his Margaritaville restaurant and stores earned more than $15 million.

In 2009, Jimmy Buffett became involved with the Miami Dolphins and due to the popularity of his Landshark Lager, he was able to strike a deal to pay for re-naming right of Dolphin Stadium to Landshark Stadium. Buffett also wrote new lyrics for the team to his 1979 song "Fins", which is played during Dolphins home games.