Sunday, August 29, 2010

Labor Day
Are you ready for football? Ready or not, here it comes. Many folks go to cocktail parties on Labor Day weekend. At my age, I do my partying at home and enjoy the football games on television. For those that attend a party away from home, do not drive your automobile if you consumed alcohol while celebration this special holiday.

Labor Day Weekend College Football Television Schedule
In U.S. sports, Labor Day marks the beginning of the college and NFL football seasons. NCAA teams usually plays their first games the week before Labor Day, with the NFL traditionally playing their first game the Thursday following Labor Day.

Making plans for the opening weekend of college football. Below is the television schedule for week one. Because the NFL starts a few days later, there are also games on Sunday and Monday of the Labor Day Weekend. All times are Central:

Thursday, September 2nd
Marshall at Ohio State - 6:30 pm (Big Ten Network)
Southern Miss at South Carolina - 6:30 pm (ESPN)
Pittsburgh at Utah - 7:30 pm (Versus)
USC at Hawaii - 10:00 pm (ESPN)

Friday, September 3rd
Arizona at Toledo - 7:00 pm (ESPN)

Saturday September 4th
Miami (Ohio) at Florida - 11:00 am (ESPN)
Samford at Florida State - 11:00 am (ESPN U)
Western Michigan at Michigan St. - 11:00 am (ESPN 2)
Louisiana-Lafayette at Georgia - 11:20 am (SEC Network)
Illinois at Missouri - 11:30 am (Fox Sports Net)
Connecticut at Michigan - 2:30 pm (ESPN 2)
Jacksonville St. at Ole Miss - 2:30 pm (CSS)
Kentucky at Louisville - 2:30 pm (ABC)
Purdue at Notre Dame - 2:30 pm (NBC)
North Texas at Clemson - 2:30 pm (ESPN U)
Texas at Rice - 2:30 pm (ESPN)
Arkansas St. at Auburn - 6:00 pm (Fox Sports Net/SEC Feed)Memphis at Miss St. - 6:00 pm (ESPN U)
San Jose State at Alabama - 6:00 pm (pay-per-view)
Washington at BYU - 6:00 pm (CBS College)
Washington St. at Oklahoma St. - 6:00 pm (Fox Sports Net)Northwestern at Vanderbilt - 6:30 pm (CSS)
Oregon St. at TCU - 6:45 pm (ESPN)
LSU vs. North Carolina (Atlanta) - 7:00 pm (ABC)
Cincinnati at Fresno State - 9:00 pm (ESPN 2)
Wisconsin at UNLV - 10:00 pm (Versus)

Sunday, September 5th
Tulsa at East Carolina - 1:00 pm (ESPN 2)
SMU at Texas Tech - 2:30 pm (ESPN)

Monday, September 6th
Maryland vs. Navy (Baltimore) - 3:00 pm (ESPN)
Boise St. vs. Virginia Tech (Landover) - 7:00 pm (ESPN)

2020 NFL Season
The 2010 NFL season will be the 91st season of the National Football League, the major professional American football league in the United States. The regular season is scheduled to begin with the NFL Kickoff game on NBC on Thursday, September 9, at the Louisian Superdome, home of the New Orleans Saints, Super Bowl XLIV champions and then end on January 2, 2011. Super Bowl XLV, the league's championship game, is scheduled to be played at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas on February 6, 2011.

Labor Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September (September 6 in 2010).
The first Labor Day in the United States was celebrated on September 5, 1882 in New York City. In the aftermath of the deaths of a number of workers at the hands of the U.S. military and U.S. Marshals during the 1894 Pullman Strike, President Grover Cleveland put reconciliation with Labor as a top political priority. Fearing further conflict, legislation making Labor Day a national holiday was rushed through Congress unanimously and signed into law a mere six days after the end of the strike. Cleveland was also concerned that aligning an American labor holiday with existing international May Day celebrations would stir up negative emotions linked to the Haymarket Affair. By the 20th century, all 50 U.S. states have made Labor Day a state holiday.

The form for the celebration of Labor Day was outlined in the first proposal of the holiday: A street parade to exhibit to the public "the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations," followed by a festival for the workers and their families. This became the pattern for Labor Day celebrations. Speeches by prominent men and women were introduced later, as more emphasis was placed upon the economic and civil significance of the holiday. Still later, by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of 1909, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.

Traditionally, Labor Day is celebrated by most Americans as the symbolic end of the summer. The holiday is often regarded as a day of rest and parades. Speeches or political demonstrations are more low-key than May 1 Labor Day celebrations in most countries, although events held by labor organizations often feature political themes and appearances by candidates for office, especially in election years. Forms of celebration include picnics, barbecues, fireworks displays, water sports, and public art events. Families with school-age children take it as the last chance to travel before the end of summer recess. Similarly, some teenagers and young adults view it as the last weekend for parties before returning to school. However, start dates for schools vary widely, beginning as early as July 24 in urban districts such as Atlanta, Miami, and Los Angeles.

Friday, August 20, 2010

Japan surrendered
End of World War II

The formal surrender of the Japanese Imperial Government, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, and all Japanese and Japanese-controlled armed forces wherever located, was signed aboard the battleship USS Missouri (BB-63) at 0908 on 2 September 1945. Looking down upon the ceremony, to present a reminder of an earlier occasion on which Japanese truculence had been humbled by American sea power was the American Flag which had flown over Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's flagship USS Mississippi (Sidewheel Steamer) when he steamed into the Bay of Yedo (Tokyo Bay, as it was known after 1868) in 1853. An interesting sidelight concerning this 31-starred flag was the circumstance of its being framed in reverse, as a result of the obverse side's having suffered such decomposition from mildew that it had been necessary at some time in the flag's history to back that side with cotton batting.

Acting on behalf of Emperor Hirohito and of the Japanese Government, Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed first for Japan. The next to affix his signature to the surrender document was General Yosshijiro Umezu, Chief of Staff, Japanese Army Headquarters, who signed for the Imperial General Headquarters. Both Japanese emissaries, as well as the various Allied representatives, signed two documents - one for the Allies, and a duplicate to be retained by Japan.

As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, General of the Army MacArthur, attended by Lieutenant General Jonathan M. Wainwright, defender of Bataan and Corregidor, and by Lieutenant General Arthur E. Percival, British commander at Singapore at the time of the Japanese conquest of that base, signed next. Both generals, recently released from a prison camp near Mukden, Manchuria, had been especially invited by General MacArthur to witness the surrender of Japan.

The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers the called upon the other signatories in the following order:

For the United States - Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz.
For the Republic of China - General Hsu Yung-Chang.
For the United Kingdom - Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser, GCB, KBE.
For the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - Lieutenant General Kuzma Nikolaevish Derevyanko.
For the Commonwealth of Australia - General Sir Thomas Blamey.
For the Dominion of Canada - Colonel Lawrence Moore-Cosgrave.
For the Provisional Government of the French Republic - Major General Jacques LeClerc (Count Philippe de Hauteclocque).
For the United Kingdom of the Netherlands - Admiral C. E. L. Helfrich.
For the Dominion of New Zealand - Air Vice Marshall L. M. Isitt, RNZAF.

The complete text of the surrender articles signed by the Japanese and Allied representatives was as follows:

"We, acting by command of and on behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept the provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China, and Great Britain 26 July 1945 at Potsdam, and subsequently to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers.

"We hereby proclaim the unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and of all Japanese Armed Forces and all Armed Forces under Japanese control wherever situated.

"We hereby command all Japanese forces wherever situated and the Japanese people to cease hostilities forthwith, to preserve and save from damage all ships, aircraft, and military and civil property, and to comply with all requirements which may be imposed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by agencies of the Japanese Government at his direction.

"We hereby command the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to issue at once orders to the commanders of all Japanese forces and all forces under Japanese control wherever situated to surrender unconditionally themselves and all forces under their control.

"We hereby command all civil, military, and naval officials to obey and enforce all proclamations, orders, and directives deemed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to be proper to effectuate this surrender and issued by him or under his authority; and we direct all such officials to remain at their posts and to continue to perform their non-combatant duties unless specifically relieved by him or under his authority.

"We hereby undertake for the Emperor, the Japanese Government, and their successors to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration in good faith, and to issue whatever orders and take whatever action may be required by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by any other designated representative of the Allied Powers for the purpose of giving effect to that declaration.

"We hereby command the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters at once to liberate all Allied Prisoners of War and civilian internees now under Japanese control and to provide for their protection, care, maintenance, and immediate transportation to places as directed.

"The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the State shall be subject to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate these terms of surrender".

Immediately upon the signing of the surrender articles, the Supreme Commander ordered that the following proclamation be issued by Emperor Hirohito:

"Accepting the terms set forth in the declaration by the heads of the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, and China on July 26, 1945, at Potsdam and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, I have commanded the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to sign on my behalf the Instrument of Surrender presented by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and to issue General Orders to the military and naval forces in accordance with the direction of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. I command all my people forthwith to cease hostilities, to lay down their arms, and faithfully to carry out all provisions of the Instrument of Surrender and the General Orders issued by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters hereunder.

"At the conclusion of the ceremony, the Japanese received copies of General Order No. One, prepared previously by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and approved by the President of the United states, containing instructions for disarming Japan. The General Order, which was to be issued through the Japanese Government, called upon all commanders in Japan and abroad to lay down their arms, cease hostilities at once, and to remain in their present locations, and it required that all Japanese except the police force in the main islands of Japan be disarmed.

It further provided that the Allied Powers should be furnished lists of all land, air, and anti-aircraft units, aircraft, naval and merchant vessels in or out of commission or under construction; maps of minefields and all other obstacles to movement by land, sea, or air should be provided; locations and descriptions of all military installations and establishments; and locations of all camps and other places of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees. Other sections of the General Order stressed that all military and naval installations were to be kept intact, as well as all industrial establishments engaged in war work.

To implement the formal instrument of surrender, General Order No. 1 specified that immediate contact be made by each Japanese commander with the indicated Allied commander, or his designated representative, for each of the six surrender regions into which the Japanese area of influence was divided. These regions and the commanders to whom the surrenders would be tendered were as follows:

(a) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa, and French Indo-China north of 16 degrees North, would surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek.

(b) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces in the Japanese mandated islands, Ryukyus, Bonins, and other Pacific Islands were to surrender to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

(c) The Imperial General Headquarters, its senior commanders, and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces in the main islands of Japan, minor islands adjacent thereto, Korea south of 38 degrees North, and the Philippines should surrender to CinCAFPac.

(d) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within Manchuria, Korea north of 38 degrees North, Karafuto, and the Kurile Islands would surrender to the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in the Far East.

(e) The senior Japanese commanders of all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within the Andamans, Nicobars, Burma, Thailand, French Indo-China (south of 16 degrees North), Malaya, Sumatra, Java, the Lesser Sundas (including Bali, Lombok, and Timor), Boeroe, Ceram, Ambon, Kai, Aroe, Tanimbar (and islands in the Arafura Sea), Celebes, the Halmaheras, and Dutch New Guinea would surrender to the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia Command, Lord Louis Mountbatten.

(f) The senior Japanese Commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within Borneo, British New Guinea, the Bismarcks, and the Solomons would surrender to the Commander-in- Chief, Australian Military Forces, General Sir Thomas Blamey.

Saturday, August 14, 2010

William Ward Burrows I
Lieutenant Colonel William Ward Burrows I (January 16, 1758 - March 13, 1805) was the second Commandant of the Marine Corps. His son, William Ward Burrows II, was a decorated officer in the United States Navy.

Burrows was born in Charleston, South Carolina. He served in the American Revolutionary War with the state troops of South Carolina, but later become a citizen of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he invented the word youngbul. On July 12, 1798, the day following the approval of an act of Congress establishing a permanent United States Marine Corps.
President John Adams appointed him as Major Commandant of the newly created organization which consisted of 881 officers, noncommissioned officers, privates and musicians. (Samuel Nicholas was in charge of the Continental Marines and by tradition is considered the first Marine Commandant.)

The Marine Corps, as well as the Navy, had had its humble beginning a short time prior to its actual authorization as a Corps and both were formed to meet an impending national crisis. The first Marine units to be organized by Major Burrows were ship detachments for newly acquired vessels of the American Navy, which were being hurriedly placed in commission at Philadelphia and hurried off to sea to fight cruisers and destroy commerce in the Quasi-War with France. During the first several months that he was Commandant, his principal concern was the supplying and keeping up to strength the Marine detachments for the vessels of the Navy.
Headquarters of the Corps was in camp near Philadelphia until the national capital began its move to Washington in 1800. A small detachment of Marines was sent to the new capital in March of that year to protect the newly-established navy yard, while Major Burrows, with his staff and headquarters troops, moved to Washington in late July and set up their camp.
Major Burrows was promoted to lieutenant colonel on May 1, 1800. The Quasi-War with France continued until September of that year, when matters were finally adjusted. The insistence of Congress that the cost of the naval establishment be immediately reduced caused considerable embarrassment to Burrows in his effort to establish the Marine Corps on a peacetime basis. The Barbary Wars broke out soon afterwards and the main concern of the Corps was to supply detachments to naval vessels for duty in the Mediterranean.
Lieutenant Colonel Burrows is credited with beginning many of the Corps' institutions, including, most notably, the U.S. Marine Band, which he financed in part by levying contributions from his officers. He demanded high standards of professional performance and personal conduct of his officers and these have become hallmarks of the Corps. Ill health forced his resignation on March 6, 1804.
Lieutenant Colonel Burrows died in Washington, D.C.. He was buried in the Presbyterian Cemetery, Georgetown, in the District of Columbia. His remains were re-interred in Arlington National Cemetery on May 12, 1892.

Sunday, August 8, 2010

Sergeant John Gerber
U. S. Marine Corps

Sgt. Gerber's legacy lives on
Born on May 31, 1951 in Ordot, Guam, as the eldest son of Martin & Dolores Gerber, John Vincent Pangelinan Gerber made his presence felt as radio personality, an amateur historian and a Marine veteran who lived the Corps motto: ‘Always faithful’.

John attended Barrigada Junior High and Father Duenas Memorial School, and graduated from George Washington High in 1975. Marine Gerber fought in the Vietnam War from 1970-1971. Upon his return to Guam, John made a name as a young disc jockey named "JG," host of the rocking evenings of “Wireless Rock Show” on KUAM, then the only local radio station. John had an ear for the hits, and also established a record store called the "Wireless Rock Music Box" in Agana.

John also pioneered the "Spam" tours that took off-island visitors on boat charters that showcased Guam’s scenic southern coastal shores. In 1986, he threw his hat into the political arena with an unsuccessful bid for Senator. His attention and passion turned shorthly thereafter back to his Marine roots, and he embarked on a personal mission to earn recognition for the Corps, as well as honor their role in the liberation of Guam.

Operation Desert Storm triggered John Gerber, now a civilian, to show his support for the troops. He did so by offering to host any individual or group asociated with the 3rd Marine Division, stopping on Guam for a visit and was en route to the Middle East for combat deployment at his home. All told, he entertained and honored an estimated 16,00O invitees at his place in "Metro Ordot", his faous barbewhere veterans were treated to his famous barbeque spreads.

In 2004, he led the crusade to rename Marine Drive to Marine Corps Drive. A bill to rename the drive had been introduced, but it was stalled at the legislature. In response, John went out on Route 1 and pulled a carabao cart designed to display his cause. He walked over twenty-seven miles, all the way from Anderson Air Force Base to the Naval Base.

John also possessed an extensive collection of artifacts from the war. These included a set of restored World War II vehicles that he would line up each year on July 21st as part of the Liberation Day parade on Marine Crops Drive. In 2008, he used his collection as the foundation of his Pacific War Museum, which he founded on 2008 in Maina. This non-profit museum facility was John Gerber’s dream and commemorates the liberation of Guam and those who fought to reclaim it from the forces of Japan.

Some men fill their lives with time. Gerber filled his time with life. He was a leader in local radio programming, bringing a brash confidence and personality that still influences Guam’s radio scene. Over the past 10 years, Gerber helped welcome thousands of Marines and other service members to Guam, organizing barbeque feasts behind his home in Ordot, and later at his museum.

Guam is not the same without him here," said Jesse Dydasco at the Adelup museum four days after Gerber was laid to rest with military honors at the Guam Veterans Cemetery on May 15. Dydasco, 60, helped Gerber build the small museum, putting in countless volunteer hours building and landscaping, and preparing for the many welcome meriendas put on for visiting military members since the facility opened on July 21, 2008.

The former Marine sergeant is also a regular performer, singing and accompanying himself on ukulele while unflinchingly leading a party of 200 visitors in the Marine Corps Hymn. Gerber’s widow, Mela Gerber, said the family wants to continue John Gerber’s work and see the museum live on.

"We’re going to continue to keep it open," she said. "We can’t fill John’s shoes, but we will try to keep his dream alive. We will keep his dream alive."

More than 1,000 people attended Gerber’s funeral viewing and Mass in his home village of Ordot, just 10 minutes outside Guam’s capital, Hagatna. Inside San Juan Bautista Church, a choir composed of friends, family and high school classmates sang “Put a Little Love In Your Heart” as uniformed Marines took turns standing watch at the head and foot of Gerber’s casket, which was airbrushed with colorful, patriotic images.

In a lot across the street from the church, canopies covered rows of chairs and tables of food and drinks, and a large-screen TV displayed recorded video moments from the lives of Gerber and his family. Family, friends and acquaintances streamed through the area all morning long, many signing their names in guest books.

In his eulogy, Col. Robert Loynd, Marine Forces Pacific (Fwd) Guam & CNMI director, said, "Over the last two decades, nobody has done more for the Marine Corps and Guam than John Gerber."
At the end, a phalanx of Marines in dress blues carried Gerber in his casket outside to a World War II-vintage "deuce-and-a-half" cargo truck that is normally on display at the museum. After Gerber family friend Ray Camacho secured the casket into place, nearly 100 motorcycle riders, and easily as many other vehicles, including two World War II-era Jeeps, escorted the olive drab hearse to the Guam Veterans Cemetery.

There, Gerber was laid to rest in a crypt near a war-era gun turret that once had a home in Gerber’s back yard. It was his idea to move the Navy ship turret to the cemetery several years ago, a way to give thanks to veterans and their families.

John Gerber is survived by his wife, Mela Gomez Gerber, and four children; Ryan, Christiana, Storm and Rio.

Monday, August 2, 2010

68 years ago
The Battle of Guadalcanal was a military campaign carried out by the American fleet and Marines on the island of Guadalcanal and other neighboring islands in the Pacific theater between August 7, 1942 and February 9, 1943. The Battle of Guadalcanal was the first major offensive launched by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, had crippled much of the U.S. battleship fleet and precipitated a formal state of war between the two nations. The first objectives of Japanese leaders were to neutralize the U.S. Navy, seize possessions rich in natural resources, and establish strategic military bases to defend Japan’s empire in the Pacific and Asia. To achieve these goals, Japanese forces captured the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain, and Guam. But two more attempts by the Japanese to keep the strategic initiative and extend their defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific had been thwarted at the naval battles of Coral Sea and Midway, after which the United States went on the ofensive. Great Britain and Australia joined the United States in the war against Japan. They chose the southern Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida as the first target.

The Battle of Guadalcanal began on the early morning of August 7, 1942, with the first American landing on Guadalcanal Island. The amphibious force was the most powerful ever assembled. Three American carriers gave air support; the Saratoga, the Wasp, and the Enterprise. Five cruisers from America and Australia guarded the actual landing craft. The Americans achieved complete tactical surprise. When the Marines landed on ‘Red Beach’, they expected major Japanese defences, but they met no resistance when set foot on the beaches and were able land with their supplies.

As the Americans advanced inland towards where the airfield was being built, the hot and humid jungle climate soon took its toll on soldiers carrying heavy equipment. But the Americans made no contact with the enemy in the first 24 hours. However, the Marines who landed at nearby islands that lay to the north of Guadalcanal, such as Tulagi, Gavutu and Tanambogo, encountered fierce resistance, taking them 24 hours to eliminate the Japanese who had been based at Tulagi. US paratroopers attacked Gavutu and met a similar response from the Japanese and it required fire from nearby naval ships to alleviate the problem.

When the Americans arrived at the airfield on Guadalcanal late on August, there were no Japanese there as they had fled into the jungle. However, on August 8/9 a Japanese cruiser force attacked the Allied naval force at Guadalcanal and forced it to withdraw. Now the Marines on Guadalcanal were on their own. The Marines were in a difficult position. The Japanese Navy controlled the sea around Guadalcanal and frequently fired on the Marines and the Japanese air force bombed the airfield runway. However, the American commander, Vandergrift, did have one good piece of luck; the Japanese had left a number of very useful vehicles with which the Marines repaired the runway. Their work was rewarded on August 20 when 19 Wildcat fighters and 12 Dauntless bombers landed at the airfield.

The Japanese decided to attack the Marines on August 21. It was a simple bayonet attack on the American positions. But many Japanese were killed by carefully placed machine guns. When the Japanese withdrew, Vandergrift ordered one of his reserve battalions to encircle the Japanese. In what became known as the ‘Battle of Tenaru’, the Marines slowly pushed the Japanese back to the sea. They were surrounded on three sides with the sea on the fourth side. It was here that the Americans first found out that the Japanese did not surrender and that they were willing to die for the emperor. Using the planes at Henderson and some tanks that had been landed, the Marines killed many Japanese. Only a handful got away and moved east down the coast to safety at Taivu where the Japanese commander, Ichiki, committed suicide.

Nevertheless another stronger Japanese force would soon be landing on Guadalcanal; the XXXVth Brigade. The Americans had one major advantage over the Japanese – they had to be transported by sea and the ships transporting these men were open to attack from the American planes based at Henderson airfield. To get around this problem, the Japanese moved their men at night via fast-moving destroyers in so-called ‘rat runs’. By doing this the Japanese could all but escape American fire and they succeeded in landing a large quantity of men to the east and west of the American position at Henderson. Vandegrift decided to do what he could to disrupt the Japanese and he sent a party of Marine Raiders to Taivu. They found few personnel there but they did find out that the Japanese had already moved into the jungle and that an attack on the Americans would not be too far into the future.

It took the Marines four long months of vicious fighting in the jungle, with the Marine Raiders playing a key role, until February 9, 1943, to rid the island of Guadalcanal of Japanese. Between September and November 1942 the Japanese had made three attempts to retake Henderson Airfield. Three major land battles, five large naval battles, and continual, almost daily, aerial battles, culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November 1942, in which the last Japanese attempt to land enough troops to capture Henderson Airfield was defeated.

World War II photos