Thursday, March 24, 2011

The Battle of Okinawa

The last battle of World War II. The battle of Okinawa started on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1945. The capture of Okinawa was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East. Okinawa was to prove a bloody battle even by the standards of the war in the Far East but it was to be one of the major battles of World War II.

The US Marines: First, Second and Sixth Marine Divisions, with the 10th Army, made the landing. I was a member of the First Marine Division.

Alongside, the territorial re-conquest of land in the Far East, the Americans wished to destroy what was left of Japan's merchant fleet and use airstrips in the region to launch bombing raids on Japan's industrial heartland.

Okinawa is the largest of the Ryukyus islands at the southern tip of Japan. Okinawa is about 60 miles long and between 2 and 18 miles wide. Its strategic importance could not be underestimated - there were four airfields on the island that America needed to control. America also faced the problem that they had not been able to get much intelligence information about Okinawa.

The Americans estimated that there were about 65,000 Japanese troops on the island - with the bulk in the southern sector of the island. In fact, there were over 130,000 Japanese troops on the island with more than 450,000 civilians. The Japanese troops on the island were commanded by Lieutenant- General Ushijima who had been ordered to hold onto the island at all costs.

Ushijima decided on his tactics - he would concentrate his forces in the southern sector of the island and station his men in a series of secure fortifications. If the Americans wanted to take these fortifications, they would have to attack the Japanese in a series of frontal assaults. Alongside the land side Japanese defences, the Japanese high command put their faith in the kamikazes which it was believed would inflict such serious casualties on the Americans in Okinawa that they would retreat.

The Americans land commander was Lieutenant-General Simon Bolivar Buckner. He had 180,000 men under his command. The bay selected for the American landing was Hagushi Bay on the western side of the island. As with Iwo Jima, the landings were preceded by a period of intense bombardment but America?s forces were also open to attack from Japanese fighters flying out of Taiwan or Japan itself.

The attack on Okinawa was scheduled for April 1st 1945. In the days leading up to it, the Americans had landed some units twenty miles southwest of Hagushi Bay to secure an anchorage. By March 31st, this landing force, comprising of the 77th Division, had secured its position.

Kamikaze attacks were being experienced by the American navy anchored off of Okinawa. Out of the 193 kamikaze plane attacks launched against the American fleet, 169 were destroyed. Those planes that got through did caused a great deal of damage especially to America's carrier fleet that did not have armoured flight decks - unlike the British carriers. However, the destruction of so many kamikaze flights did a great deal to undermine the potential for damage that the kamikazes could have inflicted.

For the actual invasion, America had gathered together 300 warships and 1,139 other ships. The first landing of Marines did take place on April 1st. They met little opposition and by the end of the day 60,000 American military personnel had landed at Hagushi Bay. By April 20th, all Japanese resistance in the north of the island had been eradicated except for some guerrilla activity.

The real battle for Okinawa was in the south of the island. On April 4th the XIV Corps (US 7th, 27th, 77th and 96th infantry divisions) ran into the Machinato line. This brought to a halt the advance of the Americans in the south of Okinawa. The Machinato line was finally breached on April 24th. However, it then had to confront the Shuri Line which further slowed the American advance. Together with the success of the kamikazes who had sunk 21 American warships and badly damaged 66 other warships, American forces experienced heavy losses.

On May 3rd, Ushijima ordered a counter-attack but this failed. By May 21st, Ushijima ordered his men to pull back from the Shuri Line. However, the resistance by the Japanese stood firm. It was only into June that it became obvious that the Japanese had lost the fight for Okinawa. On July 2nd, Okinawa was declared secure by the Americans - Ushijima had committed suicide some days before this.

The attack on Okinawa had taken a heavy toll on both sides. The Americans lost 7,373 men killed and 32,056 wounded on land. At sea, the Americans lost 5,000 killed and 4,600 wounded. The Japanese lost 107,000 killed and 7,400 men taken prisoner. It is possible that the Japanese lost another 20,000 dead as a result of American tactics whereby Japanese troops were incinerated where they fought.

The Americans also lost 36 ships. 368 ships were also damaged. 763 aircraft were destroyed. The Japanese lost 16 ships sunk and over 4,000 aircraft were lost.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Uniforms of the
United States Marine Corps

The Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps serve to distinguish Marines from members of other services. Among current uniforms in the U.S. military, the Marines' uniforms have been in service the longest. The Marine Dress Blue uniform has, with few changes, been worn in essentially its current form since the 19th century.

On March 25, 1804, Secretary of the Navy approved the first formal uniform of the Marine Corps. That opened the door for Marine uniforms of all seasons. However, the Marine Corps Dress Blue is the most attractive. Marines would never be guilty of not telling it like it is; I must admit that the blue Marine uniform worned by handsome men, is pure and simple, "girl bait".
However, enemy combat on the battlefield is the job discription for Marines, they dress for the occasion. In 1941 during World War II and the Korean War, the proper dress was a two piece sage green utility uniforms and were issued to Marines for fatigue duty.

These cotton herringbone twill (HBT) uniforms were designed for field work, but quickly became the battle dress uniform. By the time of the Guadalcanal invasion (August 1942) the HBT field uniform was in general use and continued, with modifications, through the war. The Service Uniform was reserved for garrison duty or leave and was not seen on the battlefield. In the photo, Marines in HBT fatigues wade ashore on Tinian, 24 July 1944.

Dress uniform
The Marine Corps dress uniform is an elaborate uniform worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. Its basic form of a blue jacket with red trim dates back to the 19th century. It is the only U.S. military uniform that incorporates all three colors of the U.S. Flag. There are three different variations of the Dress uniform: Evening Dress, Blue Dress, and Blue-White Dress; only officers and SNCOs are authorized to wear the Evening Dress. Until 2000, there was a White Dress uniform, similar in appearance to the U.S. Navy's Dress White uniforms, but worn by officers only (in a manner similar to that of the Dress White uniforms worn in the U.S. Coast Guard). This uniform has since been replaced with the Blue/White Dress uniform for officers and SNCOs.

Blue Dress
The most recognizable uniform of the Marine Corps is the Blue Dress uniform, often seen in recruiting advertisements. It is often called "Dress Blues" or simply "Blues". It is equivalent in composition and use to civilian black tie. The various designations are listed in descending order of formality:
* Blue Dress "A" has a long-sleeved midnight blue coat (enlisted members have red trim) with a standing collar and belt (white web belt and gold waistplate for enlisted; midnight blue for officers with a gold M-buckle), white barracks cover (a peaked cap), plain white shirt, sky blue trousers (midnight blue for general officers), white gloves, and black dress shoes and socks. Full-size medals are worn on the left chest, with ribbon-only awards worn on the right. Marksmanship badges are not worn. Women wear pumps in place of shoes, and may wear a skirt in place of slacks. For men, the dress coat is cut to be formfitting.
* Blue Dress "B" is the same as "A", but medals are replaced with their corresponding ribbons and all are consolidated on the left chest. Marksmanship badges may be worn.
* Blue Dress "C" is the same as "B", but a khaki long sleeve button-up shirt and tie replace the outer blue coat and white gloves. Ribbons and badges are normally worn on the shirt.
* Blue Dress "D" is the same as "C", but with a khaki short sleeve button-up shirt and no tie.
Because the Blue Dress uniform is considered formal wear, Blue Dress "C" and "D" are rarely worn. The main exception are Marine Recruiters and Marine Corps Security Guards, who wear the "C" and "D" in warm weather. Only the "B", "C", and "D" Blue Dress uniforms are authorized for leave and liberty wear; the "A" is not.
Officers, NCOs, and SNCOs wear a scarlet "blood stripe" down the outer seam of each leg of the blue trousers. General officers wear a 2 in (5.1 cm) wide stripe, field- and company-grade officers have a 1.5 in (3.8 cm) wide stripe, SNCOs and NCOs have a 1.125 in (2.86 cm) wide stripe. General officers wear trousers that are the same color as the coat, while all other ranks wear medium (sky) blue trousers. A blue boatcloak with a scarlet lining is optional.

A blue crewneck sweater, in the same color shade as that of the trousers, may be worn with the "C" and "D" uniforms, in which case rank insignia will continue to be worn on the collar by officers, and all wearers will display rank insignia on shoulder epaulettes (polished brass for enlisted). The collar is worn on the outside of the sweater in order to display the rated rank insignia of officers. When wearing the crewneck sweater with the long sleeve khaki shirt, a tie is not required.

Blue-White Dress
Prior to 1998, the "Blue-White" dress uniform was authorized to be worn for the ceremonial units at Marine Barracks, 8th & I in Washington, D.C. (most famously the Silent Drill Platoon and Color guard). Since then, it has become the authorized summer dress uniform for all officers (it replaced, in 2000, an all-white uniform, similar in appearance to that of the Naval Officer/CPO white dress uniform), SNCOs (unless they are in formation with NCOs and junior enlisted personnel who are not authorized to wear the uniform), and by NCOs and junior enlisted personnel for ceremonies and social events only, if authorized and provided by the command structure.

Like the Blue Dress uniform, the Blue-White Dress consists of an "A" and "B" uniform, and is worn in the same manner as that of the Blue Dress uniform, except for the trousers, skirt, or slacks being white instead of blue. Unlike the Dress Blues, the Blue-White Dress uniforms do not feature the "blood stripe". As with the Dress Blues, the "A" is not authorized for leave and liberty wear. The white trousers are not authorized for wear with either the long-sleeved or the short-sleeved khaki shirt, precluding the "C" and "D" uniforms.

Red Dress
To differentiate themselves from the infantry, musicians?at that time, merely buglers and signal callers?would reverse the traditional colors. Today's Marine Corps musicians still carry on this tradition by wearing a scarlet blouse with blue trim instead of the Dress Blues blouse. Currently, the Red-Dress uniform is worn only by members of the United States Marine Band and the United States Marine Drum and Bugle Corps, both based in Washington, D.C.; members of the twelve fleet bands wear standard Marine uniforms.

Like the Blue-White Dress uniform, musicians are not authorized to wear the khaki shirts with the Red-Dress uniform. Should the condition warrant (e.g., summer heat), the band will wear the appropriate Dress or Service uniforms.

Evening Dress
The Evening Dress is the most formal (and by U.S. Military standards, the most elaborate) of the Dress uniforms, and is the equivalent of white tie in usage. It is only authorized for wear by officers and SNCOs, and only a required uniform item for senior officers (Majors and above). It comes in three varieties:
* Evening dress "A" (for officers) is similar to Dress Blue "A", except an evening coat with strip collar, white waistcoat, and white shirt with pique placket is worn. The stripe on the trousers is a thin red stripe inside a gold embroidered stripe. Women wear a long skirt. Miniature medals and badges are worn.
* Evening dress "B" is identical to Evening Dress "A" except men wear a scarlet waistcoat (General officers) or cummerbund (other officers), and women may wear a short skirt.
* SNCO Evening Dress for Staff Non-Commissioned Officers, and much resembles a tuxedo with historic 1890s-era rank insignia sewn on the sleeves.
A blue boatcloak with a scarlet silk liner is optional. Junior officers not required to possess Evening Dress may substitute Blue or Blue-White dress "A". It is appropriate for such occasions as State functions, inaugural receptions and dinners, and formal dinners.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Leatherneck Magazine

Leatherneck Magazine of the Marines (or simply Leatherneck) is a magazine for United States Marines. It was first published as a newspaper by off-duty Marines at Marine Corps Base Quantico in 1917, and was originally named The Quantico Leatherneck. In 1918, "Quantico" was dropped from the magazine's name.

In 1920, with the formation of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) by Commandant of the Marine Corps John A. Lejeune, Leatherneck became an official Marine Corps publication under the auspices of MCI, and was moved to Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, D.C. In 1925, the format was changed from a newspaper to a magazine.

During World War II, many of the Marine Corps' combat correspondents were assigned to Leatherneck. In 1943, the Leatherneck Association was formed to govern the magazine, making it more autonomous and answerable only to the Commandant.

The magazine is sometimes referred to as the "Reader's Digest for Marines". Its name derives from the slang "leatherneck" for a U.S. Marine, referring to the leather-lined collar or stock of the original Marine uniform.

Leatherneck was an official Marine Corps publication until 1972, staffed primarily by active-duty Marines. That year all active-duty positions were eliminated and the magazine returned to Quantico. In 1976, the Leatherneck Association merged with the Marine Corps Association (MCA). As of 2010, MCA continues to publish Leatherneck alongside another Marine Corps periodical the Marine Corps Gazette.

Leatherneck celebrated its 90th anniversary in November 2007.

Noah's comments: This is not a paid ad. It's posted because it is a quality monthly magazine. If you want to read updated articles with history in the background, the Leatherneck Magazine of the Marines, is for you. The Army, Navy or the Air Force, are not able to compete with The Few, The Proud, The Marines. It's difficult to be humble when you know you are the world's best.

If you would like to subscribe and have the monthly Leatherneck magazine mailed to your home for a year, call toll free phone number 1(866)-622-1775.

Semper Fidelis <> Latin. Always Faithful. The motto of the United States Marine Corps.

Monday, March 14, 2011

Reid C. Chamberlain
U. S. Marine Corps

Date of death: March 1, 1945
Place of Birth: Parkin, Arkansas
Home of record: El Cajon, California
Status: KIA

After his escape from a Japanese Prison Camp in the Philippine Islands, Reid Chamberlain subsequently returned to duty with the Marine Corps. Promoted to Sergeant, he landed with Company A, 21st Marines at Iwo Jima on February 21, 1945, and was killed in action there on March 1.

Awards and Citations
Distinguished Service Cross
Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Corporal Reid Carlos Chamberlain (MCSN: 22334352), United States Marine Corps (Reserve), for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy while serving with the Philippine Guerilla Forces in the Philippine Islands during the period 15 January 1943 to 13 November 1943. After escaping from Corregidor and a long journey through enemy-occupied territory, Corporal Chamberlain reported for duty to the commander of the United States forces operating on the island of Mindanao. Acting the in the capacity of an officer he served as liaison officer, continually performing hazardous missions between the headquarters of various forces and delivering supplies to units by means of small boats operating in waters constantly patrolled by enemy vessels. Corporal Chamberlain's courage, resourcefulness, and determination enabled him repeatedly to penetrate the enemy blockade and to render conspicuous service to the United States forces in the Philippine Islands. His outstanding heroism and skill reflect highest credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of the United States.

General Orders: Headquarters, U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East, General Orders No. 83 (1943)
Action Date: January 15 - November 13, 1943
Service: Marine Corps

Saturday, March 5, 2011

Battle of Belleau Wood
The Battle of Belleau Wood (1 June 1918 – 26 June 1918) occurred during the German 1918 Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France. The battle was fought between the U.S. Second (under the command of Major General Omar Bundy) and Third Divisions and an assortment of German units including elements from the 237th, 10th, 197th, 87th, and 28th Divisions.

In March 1918, with nearly 50 additional divisions freed by the Russian surrender on the Eastern Front, the German Army launched a series of attacks on the Western Front, hoping to defeat the Allies before United States forces could be fully deployed. In the north, the British 5th Army was virtually destroyed by two major offensive operations, Michael and Georgette around the Somme. A third offensive launched in May against the French between Soissons and Reims, known as the Third Battle of the Aisne, saw the Germans reach the north bank of the Marne river at Château-Thierry, 40 miles (64 km) from Paris, on 27 May. Two U.S. Army divisions, the 2nd and the 3rd, were thrown into the Allied effort to stop the Germans. On 31 May, the 3rd Division held the German advance at Château-Thierry and the German advance turned right towards Vaux and Belleau Wood.

On 1 June, Château-Thierry and Vaux fell, and German troops moved into Belleau Wood. The U.S. 2nd Division, which included a brigade of U.S. Marines, was brought up along the Paris-Metz highway. The 9th Infantry Regiment was placed between the highway and the Marne, while the 6th Marine Regiment was deployed to their left. The 5th Marines and 23rd Infantry regiments were placed in reserve.

On the evening of 1 June, German forces punched a hole in the French lines to the left of the Marines' position. In response, the U.S. reserve, consisting of the 23rd Infantry regiment, the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, and an element of the 6th Machine Gun Battalion, conducted a forced march over 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to plug the gap in the line , which they achieved by dawn. By the night of 2 June, the U.S. forces held a 12 miles (19 km) front line north of the Paris-Metz Highway running through grain fields and scattered woods, from Triangle Farm west to Lucy and then north to Hill 142. The German line opposite ran from Vaux to Bouresches to Belleau.

German advance halted at Belleau Wood
German commanders ordered an advance on Marigny and Lucy through Belleau Wood as part of a major offensive, in which other German troops would cross the Marne River. The commander of the Marine Brigade, Army Gen. James Harbord, countermanding a French order to dig trenches further to the rear, ordered the Marines to "hold where they stand." With bayonets, the Marines dug shallow fighting positions from which they could fight from the prone position. In the afternoon of 3 June, German infantry attacked the Marine positions through the grain fields with bayonets fixed. The Marines waited until the Germans were within 100 yards (91 m) before opening fire with deadly rifle fire which mowed down waves of German infantry and forced the survivors to retreat into the wood.

Having suffered heavy casualties, the Germans dug in along a defensive line from Hill 204, just east of Vaux, to Le Thiolet on the Paris-Metz Highway and northward through Belleau Wood to Torcy. After Marines were repeatedly urged to turn back by retreating French forces, Marine Captain Lloyd W. Williams of the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines uttered the now-famous retort "Retreat? Hell, we just got here." Williams' battalion commander, Major Frederic Wise, later claimed that he had said the famous words.

On 4 June, Maj. Gen. Bundy, commanding the 2nd Division, took command of the American sector of the front. Over the next two days, the Marines repelled the continuous German assaults. The 167th French Division arrived, giving Bundy a chance to consolidate his 2,000 yards (1,800 m) of front. Bundy's 3rd brigade held the southern sector of the line, while the Marine Brigade held the north of the line from Triangle Farm.

Attack on Hill 142
At 3:45 a.m. on the morning of 6 June the Allies launched an attack on the German forces, who were preparing their own strike. The French 167th Division attacked to the left of the American line, while the Marines attacked Hill 142 to prevent flanking fire against the French. As part of the second phase, the 2nd Division would capture the ridge overlooking Torcy and Belleau Wood, as well as occupying Belleau Wood. However, the Marines failed to scout the woods. As a consequence, they missed a regiment of German infantry dug in, with a network of machine gun nests and artillery.

At dawn, the Marine 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, commanded by Major Julius Turrill, was to attack Hill 142, but only two companies were in position. The Marines advanced in waves with bayonets fixed across an open wheat field that was swept with German machine gun and artillery fire, and many Marines were cut down. Captain Crowther commanding the 67th Company was killed almost immediately. Captain Hamilton and the 49th Company fought from wood to wood, fighting the entrenched Germans and overrunning their objective by 600 yards. At this point, Hamilton had lost all five junior officers, while the 67th had only one commissioned officer alive. Hamilton reorganized the two companies, establishing strong points and a defensive line.

In the German counter-attack, Gunnery Sergeant Ernest A. Janson, who was serving under the name Charles Hoffman, repelled an advance of 12 German soldiers, killing two with his bayonet before the others fled; for this action he became the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor in World War I. Gunner Henry Hulbert was also cited for advancing through enemy fire during the counter-attack.

The rest of the battalion now arrived and went into action. Turrill's flanks lay unprotected and the Marines were rapidly exhausting their ammunition. By the afternoon, however, the Marines had captured Hill 142, at a cost of nine officers and most of the 325 men of the battalion.

Marines attack Belleau Wood
At 5 pm on 6 June, the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines (3/5), commanded by Major Benjamin S. Berry, and the 3rd Battalion 6th Marines (3/6), commanded by Maj. Berton W. Sibley, on their right, advanced from the west into Belleau Wood as part of the second phase of the Allied offensive. Again, the Marines had to advance through a waist-high wheat field into murderous machine gun fire. One of the most famous quotations in Marine Corps legend came during the initial step-off for the battle when Gunnery Sergeant Dan Daly, a recipient of two Medals of Honor who had served in the Philippines, Santo Domingo, Haiti, Peking and Vera Cruz, prompted his men of the 73rd Machine Gun company forward with the words: "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?"

The first waves of Marines, advancing in well-disciplined lines, were slaughtered; Major Berry was wounded in the forearm during the advance. On his right, the Marines of Major Sibley's 3/6 Battalion swept into the southern end of Belleau Wood and encountered heavy machine gun fire, sharpshooters and barbed wire. Marines and German infantrymen were soon engaged in heavy hand-to-hand fighting. The casualties sustained on this day were the highest in Marine Corps history to that time. Some 31 officers and 1,056 men of the Marine brigade were casualties. However, the Marines now had a foothold in Belleau Wood.

Fighting in Belleau Wood
The battle was now deadlocked. At midnight on 7–8 June, a German attack was stopped cold and an American counter-attack in the morning of 8 June was similarly defeated. Sibley's battalion, having sustained nearly 400 casualties, was relieved by the 1st Battalion, 6th Marines. Major Shearer took over the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines for the wounded Berry. On 9 June, an enormous American and French barrage devastated Belleau Wood, turning the formerly attractive hunting preserve into a jungle of shattered trees. The Germans counter-fired into Lucy and Bouresches and reorganized their defenses inside Belleau Wood.

In the morning of 10 June, Maj. Hughes' 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, together with elements of the 6th Machine Gun Battalion attacked north into the wood. Although this attack initially seemed to be succeeding, it was also stopped by machine gun fire. The commander of the 6th Machine Gun Battalion, Major Cole, was mortally wounded. Captain Harlan Major, senior captain present with the battalion, took command. The Germans used great quantities of mustard gas. Next, Wise's 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines was ordered to attack the woods from the west, while Hughes continued his advance from the south.

At 4 a.m. on 11 June, Wise's men advanced through a thick morning mist towards Belleau Wood, supported by the 23rd and 77th Companies of the 6th Machine Gun Battalion, and were cut to pieces by heavy fire. Platoons were isolated and destroyed by interlocked machine gun fire. It was discovered that the battalion had advanced in the wrong direction. Rather than moving northeast, they had moved directly across the wood's narrow waist. However, they smashed the German southern defensive lines. A German private, whose company had 30 men left out of 120, wrote "We have Americans opposite us who are terribly reckless fellows."

Overall, the woods were attacked by the Marines a total of six times before they could successfully expel the Germans. They fought off parts of five divisions of Germans, often reduced to using only their bayonets or fists in hand-to-hand combat.

On 26 June the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, supported by two companies of the 4th Machine Gun Battalion and the 15th Company of the 6th Machine Gun Battalion, made an attack on Belleau Wood, which finally cleared that forest of the enemy. On that day a report was sent out simply stating, "Woods now U.S. Marine Corps entirely," ending one of the bloodiest and most ferocious battles U.S. forces would fight in the war.

U.S. forces suffered 9,777 casualties, included 1,811 killed. Many are buried in the nearby Aisne-Marne American Cemetery. There is no clear information on the number of Germans killed, although 1,600 Germans were taken prisoner.

After the battle, the French renamed the wood "Bois de la Brigade de Marine" ("Wood of the Marine Brigade") in honor of the Marines' tenacity. The French government also later awarded the 4th Brigade the Croix de guerre. Belleau Wood is allegedly also where the Marines got their nickname "Teufelshunde," roughly translated "Devil Dogs," because of the ferocity with which they attacked. An official German report classified the Marines as "vigorous, self-confident, and remarkable marksmen..." General Pershing, Commander of the AEF, even said, "The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle!" Pershing also said "the Battle of Belleau Wood was for the U.S. the biggest battle since Appomattox and the most considerable engagement American troops had ever had with a foreign enemy."

In 1923, an American battle monument was built in Belleau Wood. Army General James. G. Harbord, the commander of the Marines during the battle, was made an honorary Marine. In his address, he summed up the future of the site:

"Now and then, a veteran ... will come here to live again the brave days of that distant June. Here will be raised the altars of patriotism; here will be renewed the vows of sacrifice and consecration to country. Hither will come our countrymen in hours of depression, and even of failure, and take new courage from this shrine of great deeds."

White crosses and Stars of David mark 2,289 graves, 250 for unknown service members, and the names of 1,060 missing men adorn the wall of a memorial chapel. Visitors also stop at the nearby German cemetery where 8,625 men are buried; 4,321 of them—3,847 unknown—rest in a common grave. The German cemetery was established in March 1922, consolidating a number of temporary sites, and includes men killed between the Aisne and the Marne in 1918, along with 70 men who died in 1914 in the First Battle of the Marne.

In New York City, a 0.197-acre (800 m2) triangle at the intersection of 108 Street and 51st Avenue in Queens is dedicated to Marine Pvt. William F. Moore, 47th Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment. The Fifth and Sixth Marine Regiments were awarded the French Fourragère for their actions at Belleau Wood. Two U.S. Navy vessels have been named the USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24 and LHA-3) after the battle.

"Belleau Wood" is a song released by American Country Music artist Garth Brooks. It was the 14th track from his 1997 album Sevens. The song was co-written by Joe Henry and tells the story of opposing forces joining in the singing of Silent Night during the Christmas Truce, although that had occurred in 1914 before the United States entered the war, and Belleau Wood was not on the front lines at that time.