The "Marines' Hymn" is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. It is the oldest official song in the United States military. The "Marines' Hymn" is typically sung at the position of attention as a gesture of respect. However, the third verse is also used as a toast during formal events, such as the birthday ball and other ceremonies.
HistoryThe lyrics are contained in the book "Rhymes of the Rookies" published in 1917. The author of these poems was W.E. Christian. The book is available online in several formats. The book consists of a series of poems regarding military life prior to World War I.
Some of the lyrics were popular phrases before the song was written. The line "To the shores of Tripoli" refers to the First Barbary War, and specifically the Battle of Derna in 1805. After Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon and his Marines hoisted the American flag over the Old World for the first time, the phrase was added to the battle colors of the Corps. "The Halls of Montezuma" refers to the Battle of Chapultepec, during the Mexican-American War, where a force of Marines stormed Chapultepec Castle.
While the lyrics are said to date from the 19th century, no pre-20th century text is known. The author of the lyrics is likewise unknown. Legend has it that it was penned by a Marine on duty in Mexico. The unknown author transposed the phrases in the motto on the Colors so that the first two lines of the Hymn would read: "From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli", favoring euphony over chronology.
The music is from the Gendarmes' Duet (the "bold gendarmes") from the 1867 revision of the 1859 opera Genevi?ve de Brabant by Jacques Offenbach, which debuted in Paris in 1859. Correspondence between Colonel Albert S. McLemore and Walter F. Smith (the second leader of the Marine Band) traces the tune:
|Major Richard Wallach, USMC, says that in 1878, when he was in Paris, France, the aria to which the Marines' Hymn is now sung was a very popular one.|
The name of the opera and a part of the chorus was secured from Major Wallach and forwarded to Mr. Smith, who replied:
|Major Wallach is to be congratulated upon a wonderfully accurate musical memory, for the aria of the Marine Hymn is certainly to be found in the opera, 'Genevieve de Brabant'... The melody is not in the exact form of the Marine Hymn, but is undoubtedly the aria from which it was taken. I am informed, however, by one of the members of the band, who has a Spanish wife, that the aria was one familiar to her childhood and it may, therefore, be a Spanish folk song.||?|
John Philip Sousa once wrote:
|The melody of the 'Halls of Montezuma' is taken from Offenbach's comic opera, 'Genevieve de Brabant' and is sung by two gendarmes.||?|
In 1929, the Commandant of the Marine Corps authorized the three verses of the Marines' Hymn as the official version, but changed the third and fourth lines:
|Pre-1929 version||Authorized change|
|Admiration of the nation,|
we're the finest ever seen;
And we glory in the title
Of United States Marines.
|First to fight for right and freedom|
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
Of United States Marine.
This older version can be heard in the 1950 film Halls of Montezuma. On 21 November 1942, Commandant Thomas Holcomb approved a change in the words of the first verse's fourth line from "On the land as on the sea" to "In the air, on land, and sea" to reflect the addition of aviation to the Corps' arsenal.
- From the Halls of Montezuma,
- To the shores of Tripoli;
- We fight our country's battles
- In the air, on land, and sea;
- First to fight for right and freedom
- And to keep our honor clean:
- We are proud to claim the title
- Of United States Marine.
- Our flag's unfurled to every breeze
- From dawn to setting sun;
- We have fought in every clime and place
- Where we could take a gun;
- In the snow of far-off Northern lands
- And in sunny tropic scenes;
- You will find us always on the job
- The United States Marines.
- Here's health to you and to our Corps
- Which we are proud to serve;
- In many a strife we've fought for life
- And never lost our nerve;
- If the Army and the Navy
- Ever look on Heaven?s scenes;
- They will find the streets are guarded
- By United States Marines.