War of 1812
The War of 1812, between the United States of America and the British Empire , was fought from 1812 to 1815.There were several immediate stated causes for the U.S....between the British Empire and the United States of America. British forces occupied Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C. , formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D.C., is the Capital of the United States, founded on July 16, 1790....and set fire to many public buildings. The facilities of the U.S. government, including the White House.
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., it was built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the late Georgian architecture and has been the executive residence of every U.S...., were largely destroyed, though strict discipline and the British commander's orders to burn only public buildings are credited with preserving most residences. Some historians assert that the attack was in retaliation for the American looting of York, Upper Canada.
York was the name of Toronto, Ontario, between 1793 and 1834 and second capital of Upper Canada.... (now Toronto)
Toronto is the List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population in Canada and the Provinces and territories of Canada Provincial and territorial capitals of Canada of Ontario....after the Battle of York.
Battle of York
The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 fought on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to be renamed Toronto. An American force supported by a naval flotilla landed on the lake shore to the west, defeated the defending British force and captured the town and Naval Shipyards, York ....in 1813, and the burning down of the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada. However, the British Army commanders said the goal was to attack Washington "on account of the greater political effect likely to result," and did not mention York. A suggestion of retaliation comes from the fact that Governor-General Sir George Prevost of Canada had written to the Admirals in Bermuda calling for a retaliation for the American sacking of York. He needed their permission and provision of naval resources. At the time, it was considered against the civilized laws of war to burn a non-military facility and the Americans had not only burned the Parliament but also some private warehouses which were also looted. Further proof of the retaliation was that after the limited British burning of some facilities of Washington, the British left. There was no territory that they wanted to occupy and no military facility that they had planned to attack.The White House was set ablaze causing extensive damage. Only the exterior walls remained, and they had to be torn down and mostly reconstructed due to weakening from the fire and subsequent exposure to the elements, except for portions of the south wall. A legend emerged that during the rebuilding of the structure white paint was applied to mask the burn damage it had suffered, giving the building its namesake hue. This is unfounded as the building had been painted white since its construction in 1798. Of the many spoils taken from the White House when it was ransacked by British troops, only two have been recovered — a painting of George Washington.
George Washington was the leader of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War and served as the List of Presidents of the United States President of the United States of the United States of Americas ....rescued by then-first lady Dolley Madison.
Dolley Payne Todd Madison was the spouse of the 4th President of the United States, James Madison, and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817....and a jewelry box returned to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939 by an old man who said his grandfather had taken it from Washington.
The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national Flag of the United Kingdom. Historically, the flag was used throughout the former British Empire....was raised above Washington.The buildings housing the Senate
United States Senate.
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as "the House", is one of the bicameralism of the United States Congress; the other is the United States Senate....construction on the trademark central rotunda of the Capitol.
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States....had not yet begun—were set ablaze not long after. The interiors of both buildings, including the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and holds the largest number of books...., were destroyed, although the thick walls and a torrential rainfall preserved their exteriors.
Thomas Jefferson was the List of Presidents of the United States President of the United States , the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence , and one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States....later sold his library to the government to restock the Library of Congress.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and holds the largest number of books.....) The next day Admiral Cockburn entered the building of the D.C. newspaper.
The National Intelligencer newspaper was published in Washington, D.C. from about 1800 until 1867.Until 1810 it was named the National intelligencer, and Washington advertiser...., intending to burn it down; however, a group of neighborhood women persuaded him not to because they were afraid the fire would spread to their neighboring houses. Cockburn wanted to destroy the newspaper because they had written so many negative items about him, branding him as "The Ruffian." Instead he ordered his troops to tear the building down brick by brick making sure that they destroyed all the "C" type so that no more pieces mentioning his name could be printed. The troops then turned north down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the White House.
First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. Because this position is traditionally filled by the wife of the President of the United States, the title is sometimes taken to apply only to the wife of a sitting President....Dolley Madison
Dolley Payne Todd Madison was the spouse of the 4th President of the United States, James Madison, and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817....remained there after many of the government officials — and her own bodyguard — had already fled, gathering valuables, documents and other items of importance, notably the Lansdowne Portrait
The Lansdowne portrait is an iconic Oil painting portrait of George Washington, the first President of the United States. The portrait was commissioned in April 1796 by United States Senate William Bingham of Pennsylvania—one of the wealthiest men in the U.S...., a full-length painting of George Washington.
George Washington was the leader of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War and served as the List of Presidents of the United States President of the United States of the United States of Americas .... by Gilbert Stuart.
Gilbert Charles Stuart was an American Painting from Rhode Island.Gilbert Stuart is widely considered to be one of America's foremost portraitists..... She was finally persuaded to leave moments before invading soldiers entered the building. Once inside, the soldiers found the dining hall set for a dinner for 40 people. After eating all the food, they took souvenirs (e.g., one of the president's hats) and then set the building on fire.Fuel was added to the fires that night to ensure they would continue burning into the next day; the flames were reportedly visible as far away as Baltimore and the Patuxent River.
The Patuxent River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in the state of Maryland. There are three main river drainages for central Maryland: the Potomac River to the west passing through Washington D.C., the Patapsco River to the northeast passing through Baltimore, and the Patuxent River between the two.....The British also burned the United States Treasury building and other public buildings. The historic Washington Navy Yard.
The Washington Navy Yard is the former shipyard and Weapon plant of the United States Navy in Washington, D.C. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S.... founded by Thomas Jefferson and the first federal installation in the United States, was burned by the Americans to prevent capture of stores and ammunition, as well as the 44-gun frigate.
A frigate is a warship. The term has been used for warships of many sizes and roles over the past few centuries.In the 18th century, the term referred to ships which were as long as a ship-of-the-line and were square rig on all three masts , but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort....Columbia.
Nine United States Navy ships have been named USS Columbia, after the personification of the United States, also after the city of Columbia, South Carolina....which was then being built. The United States Patent Office building was saved by the efforts of William Thornton.
Dr. William Thornton was an American physician, inventor, painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol. He also served as the first Architect of the Capitol and first Superintendent of the United States Patent Office....—architect of the Capitol and then superintendent of patents—who convinced the British of the importance of its preservation. Also spared were the Marine barracks.
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing Military power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to rapidly deliver Marine Air-Ground Task Force....
Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.
Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. is located at 8th and I Streets SE in Washington, D.C. Established in 1801, it is a registered historical site, the oldest post in the United States Marine Corps and home to the Commandant of the Marine Corps...., which some attribute as a gesture of respect for their conduct at Bladensburg.
Battle of Bladensburg
The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. The defeat of the United States forces there allowed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to capture and burn Washington, D.C....Less than a day after the attack began, a hurricane.
A tropical cyclone is a storm characterized by a large low pressure system center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and flooding rain.... which included a tornado
A tornado is a violent, rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.... passed through, damaging the invaders and putting out the fires. This forced the British troops to return to their ships, many of which were badly damaged by the storm, and so the actual occupation of Washington lasted about 26 hours. President Madison and the rest of the government quickly returned to the city.
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock Particle size . Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust ....walls of the White House survived, although scarred with smoke and scorch marks. Reconstruction of the White House began in early 1815 and was finished in time for President James Monroe.
James Monroe was the List of Presidents of the United States President of the United States . His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida ; the Missouri Compromise , in which Missouri was declared a slave state; the admission of Maine in 1820 as a free state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine , declaring U.S....'s inauguration 1817. Madison resided in The Octagon House for the remainder of his term. Reconstruction of the Capitol did not begin until 1815, and it was completed in 1864.